Apes CH 12 Reveiw
Terms in this set (108)
Which energy source does not originate from the sun?
Traveling alone in a car uses 3.6 MJ of energy per kilometer. If 4 people go on a trip of 400 miles, what is the MJ per person?
The major source of energy in the US is...
Which is an example of a secondary energy source?
The use of a fuel to generate electricity and produce heat. Also known as combined heat and power
Which type of coal has the highest energy density?
What makes petroleum convenient to use as fuel for transportation?
High energy density
Its liquid state
Natural Gas is mostly.....
Bitumen is .....
a degraded type of petroleum
The Hubbert curve predicts that.......
peak would occur when half the supply is used up
One (g) of U-235 produces approximately how much more energy than 1 gram of coal?
2 - 3 Million
Control Rodes slow nuclear reactions by ......
absorb excess neutrons
The process of fusion.....
requires extremely high temperatures
Increased interest in nuclear power is due to.......
low carbon dioxide emissions
For a sample of Ti - 44 with a half life of 63 years, how long until 1/16 of teh original amount is left?
How many MJ of energy does traveling by air expend for one person?
How many MJ of energy does traveling by car expend for one person?
How many MJ of energy does traveling by motorcycle expend for one person?
How many MJ of energy does traveling by train expend for one person?
How many MJ of energy does traveling by bus expend for one person?
How many kilometers go into 1 mile?
Where does the vast majority of our fossil fuels come from?
organic material formed 50 million to 350 million years ago
How are fossil fuels made?
Organic material in anaerobic environments; such as swamps and marshes; piles up very quickly and therefore doesn't all get decomposed. Layers and layers of sediment pile up over it; eventually creating a high energy solid, liquid, and gaseous components of fossil fuels through heat and pressure.
In 2011, what was the world energy consumption?
550 EJ per year; or 75GJ per person
What are the three largest fossil fuel resources? What is peat?
Oil, coal, natural gas
Precursor to coal, but is sometimes mixed in with it for reporting processes
What percentage of the world people live in developed nations? What percentage of the world energy do they use?
________has the greatest total energy consumption, whereas _______ has the greatest per capita energy consumption.
At ______ EJ per year, ____________ has the lowest annual energy consumption of the countries shown.
Why are developing countries more likely to use more energy then underdeveloped ones?
Developed: individuals more likely to use fossil fuels either directly or indirectly through electricity and other means
Undeveloped: individuals still use more direct forms of energy, such as fuel from wood, charcoal, or animal waste
An energy source that is bought and sold
Commercial Energy source
An energy source gathered by individuals for immediate use
Subsistence Energy Source
What do societies do as the energy demand increases?
Change energy sources
What was the predominant fuel before coal?
What are the three resources that supply the majority of the energy used in the United States = In order of importance?
Oil, Natural Gas, Coal
Why has natural gas become popular once again?
Increase in availability and decrease in price due to hydraulic fracturing
What is the percentage energy mix of US consumption?
82% Fossil fuel
8% Nuclear Fuel
10% Renewable Energy
The US produces _________ of the energy it needs, the resulting __________ is then obtained through imports from other countries; mostly in petroleum.
In the US, ___________ uses the most energy, followed by _______________.
What is the choice fuel in the midwestern and southeastern states? In the northeastern and west?
Mix of hydroelectricity, natural gas, and nuclear fuels
What is energy efficiency?
Refers to the efficiency of the process we use to obtain the fuel and the efficiency of the process that converts it into the work that is needed
Measure of the ease at which stored energy can be converted into useful work.
What does teh second law of thermodynamics indicate?
That when energy is transferred, some of the energy is lost in the process
What is the efficiency of converting coal into electricity?
What is the most direct way to account for the energy required to produce a fuel? What is it exactly?
by calculating the energy return investment (EROEI)
The amount of energy we get out of an energy source for every unit of energy expended on its production
What is the formula for EROEI?
= Energy obtained from fuel/ energy invested to obtain fuel
_______ of energy used in the US is used for transportation.
What are the most energy efficient modes of transportation?
Motorcycles and trains
What are examples of primary energy sources? What is an example of a secondary energy source?
Coal, Oil, natural gas
Something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users.
What does an energy source have to do to entail that it might be the most efficient?
fewest conversions from its original form to the end use
A power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity.
What percentage can a combined cycle power plant have?
The fraction of time a power plant operates in a year
What is the capacity factor of most thermal power plants?
0.9 or greater
The use of fuel to generate electricity and produce heat
What is co-generation efficiency?
as high as 90%
A solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials preserved 280 million to 360 million years ago
Ranked from lesser to greater age, exposure to pressure, and energy content; what are the three types of coal?
Lignite, bituminous, and anthracite
Where are the largest coal reserves found in the world?
US, Russia, China, and India
What are the countries that are producing the most coal right now?
China, United States, India, and Australia
In order to reduce chemical compounds being released into the atmosphere via coal combustion, what do coal companies do? What is an accident related to this event?
wash it in organic compunds
Jan. 2014, chemical storage tank containing coal cleaning liquid leaked in West Wirginia, leading to 300,000 residents being advised to not drink their water for a number of days
What percentage of the coal burned is left behind as ash? where do they put this ash?
At the power-plant
A fluid mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur that occurs in underground deposits
How is petroleum formed? Where can they be found?
From remains of ocean-dwelling phytoplankton that died 50 million to 150 million years ago
Where porous sedimentary rock, such as sandstone, are capped by nonporous rock
What is crude oil? What can it be crafted into? What is the difference between all of them?
Tar, Asphalt, Gasoline, Diesel, and Kerosene
While the primary use of petroleum is used for transportation; petroleum is also used for other things like.....
plastics, lubricants, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, and cleaning solvents
What are the top petroleum producing countries in the world in order? What fraction of oil production do they account for?
Saudi Arabia, Russia, United States, Iran, China, Canada, Mexico
What was the largest oil spill in the US? What was the most recent blowout of a similar magnitude?
Exxon Valdez of 2010
British Deepwater Horizon Oil well explosion that spilled 780 million liters of oil
What did the 2003 National Academy of Science study discover about oil entering our waterways?
A relatively small percent came from actual oil spills, most of it is actually from the runoff from cities and towns with accidental car leakage
The debate about the environmental effects of land based oil extraction has continued with.....
How much oil to companies think they will be able to find?
the proposal to allow oil exploration in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
95 Billion liters
What are these oil field located in Nigeria?
Crude oil covers fields near villages, while oil flaring, the burning of excess natural gas, happens relatively close as well
What are the two largest uses for natural gas in the US?
electricity generation and industrial processes
What is LPG?
Liquified petroleum gas
What percentage does LPG and natural gas account for?
How many homes in the US use natural gas for heating?
What is considered the "cleanest" of all the fossil fuels?
Natural gas is 80-90% methane. When compared with CO2, why is this a bad thing?
Methane is 25 times more effective at absorbing infrared energy
What are some dis-advantages surrounding natural gas?
Contaminated water/ need for a lot of water
Lots of waste
Methane leakage into atmosphere
Why has estimating the amount of natural gas leakage become so difficult?
uncertainties in extraction processes, measurement difficulties, industry secrecy
What are the two less readily available fossil fuels?
Oil sands and liquid coal
Slow-flowing, viscous deposits pf bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay
A degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of earth and is modified by bacteria
What are some issues concerning oil sands?
~Oil sands require so much energy before they arrive at the refinery
~The resulting CO2 release is greater
What is CTL?
the process of converting coal to liquid coal
Why is liquid coal not promising?
~EPA estimates that emission are more then twice those from conventional coal
~Mining impacts on environment are severe
The energy use per unit of gross domestic product
How efficiently are we using our energy today? With this being so, why hasn't our energy output decreased?
Population has grown too much that it offsets our energy efficiency
A bell shaped curve representing when both oil production would reach a maximum and when the world would run out of oil.
What did Hubbert predict in his graph?
That oil extraction and use would increase steadily until half the supply had been used up
When does radioactive decay start?
When a parent isotope emits alpha or beta particles or gamma rays
What happens during nuclear fission ?
A neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into two or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat.
Why is Uranium-235 ideal for nuclear reactions?
has easily fissionable isotopes
What does the reaction in a nuclear plant look like? (Formula)
1 neutron + Uranium-235 ---> Barium-142 + Krypton-91 + 3
A cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel with a nuclear raector
Cylindrical device inserted between the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction
Why do nuclear power plants include water in the reaction process?
Need of moderator, such as water, to keep the fuel rods cool enough so they can control the speed of the reactions
Where are some of the largest uranium mines?
US, Australia, Canada
Nuclear energy accounts for ___________% of energy in France; and it is also used in other countries such as.....
United Kingdom, Lithuania, Germany, Spain, Japan, China, and South Korea
What was the Accident of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania?
Operators did not notice that the cooling water valve had been closed the previous day; leading to the lack of cooling water around the reactor core, which overheated and suffered a meltdown.
What happened at the accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine?
Operators deliberately removed the control rods and disconnected emergency cooling systems for the plant due to a test. With non of this, the reactions continued until they were past the point of repair and eventually exploded.
What happened at the accident in Fukushima, Japan?
9.0 earthquake just off the coast of Japan sent in a tsunami that caused major structural damage to the nuclear power plant; eventually cutting off the power and thus leaving it without the means to counteract the meltdown happening in the core.
What are the three types of radioactive waste?
Low-Level: contaminated protective clothing, rags, and other items
High-Level: Contaminated fuel rods,
Uranium Mine Tailings
What is the half-life of Uranium-235?
704 Million Years
Unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays; Decay of 1 atom per second
Unit of measure for radiation; 37 billion decays per second
What energy source is responsible for the largest fraction of electricity generation in the United States?
What is not associated with surface mining of coal?
Underground tunnels and shafts
What would a cost benefit analysis doen to investigate a proposed mine site likely take into account?
~Medical costs of mine workers injuries
~Cost of environmental restoration of the site when it closed down
~Value of the ore to be harvested from the mine
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