The world to 1750
Terms in this set (98)
What is the period from 1450-1750 called?
The early modern period
The power shifted from who to Western Europe?
Asia and the middle east
What was international trade supported by?
Technological developments in transportation
Who were the gunpowder empires?
China, Japan, Muslims (ottomans, Safavids, Mughals)
Why was the period from 1450-1750 called the early modern period?
Power shift to Western Europe, international trade grew, and sustained interactions between east and west hemispheres
What did the early modern period also mark the shift of other than power to countries?
Land based powers to sea based
How did land based powers expand?
Building armies, bureaucracies, roads, canals, and walls to unify people
How did sea based powers gain wealth?
From control of water routes, trade, technology & land claims across oceans
What cultural changes caused Western Europe's rise to power?
Renaissance, reformation, and enlightenment
How did technology cause Western Europes rise to power?
It enabled exploration and development of capitalism to make wealth from trade and new territories
Who sought to understand how the natural laws of the universe effect human society and government?
What was the enlightenment inspired by?
Humanism and the scientific revolution
Who was the most influential enlightenment philosopher of the 17th century?
Who wrote Leviathan?
What did Leviathan explain?
The people must be controlled by absolute rukers
What social contract did Locke assert?
A contract between between ruler & subject requiring the ruler to have the convent of the governed
Who wrote the Two Treatises of Government?
What did Locke argue in two treatises of government?
That all men were born with natural rights to life, liberty, and property
What was the role of the monarch in locke's opinion?
To protect people's rights and the people have the right to revolt against tyrants if they fail to do so
Who wrote The Wealth of Nations?
Who analyzed the natural law of supply and demand (the invisible hand)?
When did the enlightenment come to France?
The 18th century
Who were Philisophes?
Enlightenment thinkers that debated novels and political treatises in salons
Who hosted the talks in salons?
Socially prominent women
Who suggested the division of government into 3 branches with checks and balances?
Baron de Montesquieu
What did Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet) argue?
That the monarchy and church were despotic for limiting the people's natural freedoms
Who wrote the book The Social Contract?
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Who said "Man is born free, & everywhere he is in chains"
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Where did the enlightenment inspire revolutions?
America and France
What were rulers who embraced parts of the movement called?
Enlightenment inspired the exchange of ideas, literacy, and musicians such as who?
Bach and Mozart
What benefited the consolidation of power as the Catholic Church lost its power?
Religion no longer inhibited formation of what strong states?
England, France, and Spain
Spain was at its height of power under who?
King Phillip 2
Why did Spain lose its power?
Inflation, a weakening Church and defeat of the armada
What Dynasty did France rule under until 1792?
What was know as the sun king and the strongest absolutist?
What did Louis 14 exclaim?
I am the state
What did Louis 14 build to break aristocratic power?
The palace of Versailles
How did Louis 14 cause religious strife?
He revoked the edict of Nantes
Who did France appoint as a finance minister?
Jean Baptiste Colbert
How did the war of Spanish succession start?
With Louis' grandson, Phillip V became the king of spain
When did the war of Spanish succession happen?
Who fought because they feared the union of Spain and France?
England, Prussia, and austria
What ended Habsburg rule?
Phillip 5 took the Spanish throne after renouncing any claim to Frances
What did Louis 14 reign leave in France?
A legacy of debt leading England to dominate in European affairs
Who practiced absolutism?
Austria and Prussia and france
Prussia and Austria had a strong military to keep out who?
Habsburg Dynasty ended with which war?
War of Austrian Succession
What was the War of Austria Succession fought over?
The ascension of Maria Theresa
Who fought against England and Austria?
Spain and France and prussia
Why did Prussia switch sides?
They wanted to be against Austria so they could be stronger than them
Who becomes the greatest power in the former HRE?
What was also called the limited monarchy?
Who developed constitutionalism?
Britain and the netherlands
Who did rulers have to share power with in a limited monarchy?
The English parliament derived its power to control taxes from what?
Who did the Stuart dynasty start with?
How did James 1 anger the parliament and caused pilgrims to leave?
Claimed divine right
Who attempted to arrest members of Parliament for refusing to fund a war in Ireland?
What began the English civil war?
Charles wanting to arrest parliament members
What were king supporters called?
What were parliament supporters called?
Who were the roundheads led by?
The execution of Charles 1 led to the creation of what republic?
What title did Cromwell get when the republic crashed?
What did Cromwell suppress when he became dictator?
Irish Catholics and closed saloons and gambling houses
What did the death of Oliver Cromwell lead to?
Who was the monarchy reestablished under?
What was Charles II forced to sign?
The habeas corpus act providing no unlawful detention
Who ruled after Charles 2?
James 2 who was a catholic and claimed divine right
Who was James 2 forced to abdicate his throne to?
His puritan daughter and her husband; William and mary
What was the bloodless transition of power from James 2 to William and Mary?
What did the English bill of rights do?
It limited the monarch and secure the powers of parliament
When did parliaments power increase?
When the German Hanover line took the throne in 1714
Why did parliament power increase when the Hanover's come into power?
Because the first 2 George's couldn't speak englush
Who did the Russian empire become absolutist under after expelling the mongols?
Why was Russia not a powerful sea power?
Their ports froze over so they didn't have a long period to trade sea based
What was the Time of Troubles?
A period of civil war caused by the death of Ivan the terrible without an heir
Who did the Russian nobles elect to rule?
What were Russian nobles called?
How long did the Romanov Dynasty rule Russia?
Who was the most important tsar that ruled from 1682-1724?
Peter the Great
What did Peter import from Western Europe?
Technology, artist, and engineers
Why was St. Petersburg built?
"A window to the west" to gain access to the Baltic Sea and engage with Europe
Where did Russia try to get warm water ports?
Around the Black Sea trying to take it from the ottomans
What were peters military reforms?
Drafting of peasants into the army and the building of a navy to compete with the west
What were peters social reforms?
Required Western dress men to have to shave, women no longer required to wear veils or seclude themselves
What did Peter eliminate from the nobility?
Who continued peters westernizing wishes?
Catherine the great
What new conflicts came out of peters death?
Civil war, fight between Slavic ways and western ways, refusing of enlightenment ideas, rejection of export oriented economies
What did the ottomans do in 1453?
Captured Constantinople and renamed Hagia Sophia
Who was the advisor to the sultan?
Who were the Janissaries?
An elite military group used by the sultan to handle challenges to their authority
Who were enslaved children of their Christian subjects who were trained as infantry?
Who laid siege to Vienna in 1529?
Suleiman the Magnificent
Where did the ottomans get there Wealth from?
Control of the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
What did Suleiman build as a sir of Sunni worship?