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Chapter 12 Foreign Affairs in the Young Nation (History)
Terms in this set (5)
One side of dollar bill has a seal to identify real bills, started to be worked on the same day of independence (July 4th, 1776). The Great Symbol describes the nation's principals, olive branch is peace whereas arrow stands for war. Eagle points towards the olive branch, arrow shows that peace will be protected by anything. George Washington is on the front of our bill due to high acceptance rates during his time and till our time. Washington defined foreign affair policy, makes things that will lead us in the future conflicts with other countries.
12.2 (President Washington Creates a Foreign Policy)
Military status of America was very weak, American Revolutionary army disbanded because money could not be paid and it would jeopardize the people's liberty (state militia could handle issues).
Still many threats from British in north Canada, and some occupied in the Ohio Valley. South and west was controlled by Spain. In 1789 the French people had declared a revolution against their king, and in 1793 they had declared it against Britain. Washington didn't know which side to take, France had signed a treaty with the US so they would aid each other in times of need. Washington announced his policy of neutrality in which the U.S will not help either the French or the British. Restated his policy again during his farewell address to the nation.
12.3 (President Adam's Dilemma: Protecting U.S Ships, The Jay Treaty, The XYZ Affair)
John Adams had tried to follow Washington's idea of isolationism, but it was hard with France.
French leaders had hoped that the conflict in the Ohio Valley would start a war with the US and Britain, but this was changed when a representative named John Jay to London to settle matters. This treaty was later named the Jay Treaty which was signed in 1794. France viewed this treaty as a violation of the friendship treaty signed in 1778 so they began to attack US ships. In a span of a year (1796), the French started to seize ships and were manageable to acquire 316 American Ships.
President Adams had sent 3 American envoys to France to request them to stop attacking ships. French minister Talleyrand did not want to meet with the envoys so instead sent secret agents X, Y and Z. They then passed on the information that in order for peace talks to occur, Talleyrand must receive a large sum of money as a tribute and the American Envoys refused by such a shocking request. Americans at home were outraged by the "XYZ Affair", 10,000 men were voted to be recruited for an army by Adam's request and 12 new ships were built for the nation's small navy. America had prepared to launch an undeclared, unofficial war on France and managed to capture 80 armed French ships. President Adams became very popular across the country, but he was still not sure if the war was beneficial for the country.
12.4 (What Happened: Adams Pursues Peace)
Adams soon reconsidered the idea of war and sent a group of men to settle affairs and work out peace. But by then Napolean Bonaparte had taken over the French Government and he wants to have a peaceful relationship with both Britain and the United States. Napolean had also agreed to end the 1778 alliance treaty and in return France paid for all the lost ships due to the pirating so the American government would be able to pay back ship owners. Adams thought of this as a small price to pay for peace with France. The Federalist party lost support over the years but Adams still had no regrets.
12.5 (President Jefferson's Dilemma: Dealing with Pirates, Impressment, Piracy)
Britain and France were again in a war in 1803, they started to seize American ships trading with their enemy. Jefferson tried to keep the same plan that Washington and Adams had tried before which is neutrality.
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