Industry, water from vinyl chloride pipes. Carcinogen. Cancer.
Alcoholic beverages. Teratogen. Fetuses with reduced fetal growth, brain and nervous system damage.
Herbicide. Endocrine disruptor. Feminization of males, low sperm count.
Insecticide. Endocrine Disruptor. Feminization of males, thin eggshells of birds.
Plastics, cosmetics. Endocrine disruptors. Feminization of males.
Dose Response Studies
Expose plants or animals to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Short studies such as dose response.
Lethal dose that kills 50 percent of population.
Effects that aren't death from a chemical.
Effective dose that harms 50 percent of population.
Safe Amount of chemical for animals
Safe Amount of chemical for humans
Longer duration studies.
Field of science that strives to understand the causes of illness and disease in human and wildlife populations
Monitor people who have been exposed to a chemical sometime in the past.
Monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Two risks together would cause more harm than one individually.
Routes of Exposure
Ways an individual might come into contact with a chemical
How well a chemical can dissolve in a liquid.
Increase in the increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain.
How long the chemical remains in the environment.
Anything in environment that can cause harm.
Identify the hazard, characterize toxicity, determine extent of exposure.
Determine level of acceptable risk, balanced against social, economic, and political considerations.
Determine policy with input from private citizens, industry, and interest groups.
Innocent Until Proven Guilty Principle
Based on philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until scientific data can demonstrate harm. Allows introduction more quickly, but can harm environment and people for a long time before evidence exists.
Based on philosophy that when a hazard is plausible but not yet certain we should take actions to reduce or remove the hazard. Fewer chemicals enter environment but reduce financial motivation to invest in chemical research.
Produced list of 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced. Including DDT and PCBs.