57 terms

Environmental Science for AP Friedland and Relyea Chapter 17

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Disease
Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms.
Infectious Diseases
Caused by pathogens
Chronic Diseases
Slowly impair the functioning of a person's body
Acute Diseases
Rapidly impair the functioning of a person's body.
Epidemic
Pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease
Pandemic
Epidemic over a large area
Plague
Most familiar historical disease. Transmitted by flea bites or fleas on rodents. Swollen glands, black spots on skin, and extreme pain.
Malaria
Caused by mosquitoes. Flu-like symptoms. Eradicated from US because of widespread mosquito killing with pesticides like DDT.
Tuberculosis
Infects lungs, airborne when someone coughs. Infected may not show symptoms. Cured with antibiotics, but when people don't take for full amount of time, drug resistant strains form.
Emergent Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases that were previously not described or have not been common prior to the past 20 years.
AIDS/HIV
STD and through sharing blood and needles. Weakens immune system.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
High death rate of infected. Fever, vomited, internal and external bleeding.
Mad Cow Disease
Caused by prions. Loss of coordination, brain damage then death.
Prions
Usually useful proteins in a cows brain that can mutate into harmful pathogens.
Bird Flu
H1N1. From close contact with birds.
West Nile Virus
Transmitted among birds by mosquitoes. Spread to humans by mosquitoes. Inflammation of brain.
Neurotoxins
Chemicals that disrupt nervous systems.
Carcinogens
Chemicals that cause cancer.
Mutagens
Carcinogens that cause damage to genetic material of a cell.
Teratogens
Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses.
Allergens
Chemicals that cause allergic reactions.
Endocrine Disruptors
Chemicals that interfere with normal functioning of hormones.
Lead
Paint, gas. Neurotoxin. Impaired learning, nervous system disorders, death
Mercury
Coal burning, fish consumption. Neurotoxin. Damaged brain, kidneys, liver, and immune system.
Arsenic
Mining, groundwater. Carcinogen. Cancer
Asbestos
Building materials. Carcinogen. Impaired breathing, lung cancer.
PCBs
Industry. Carcinogen. Cancer, impaired learning, liver damage.
Radon
Soil, water. Carcinogen. Lung cancer.
Vinyl Chloride
Industry, water from vinyl chloride pipes. Carcinogen. Cancer.
Alcohol
Alcoholic beverages. Teratogen. Fetuses with reduced fetal growth, brain and nervous system damage.
Atrazine
Herbicide. Endocrine disruptor. Feminization of males, low sperm count.
DDT
Insecticide. Endocrine Disruptor. Feminization of males, thin eggshells of birds.
Phthalates
Plastics, cosmetics. Endocrine disruptors. Feminization of males.
Dose Response Studies
Expose plants or animals to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Acute Studies
Short studies such as dose response.
LD50
Lethal dose that kills 50 percent of population.
Sublethal effects
Effects that aren't death from a chemical.
ED50
Effective dose that harms 50 percent of population.
Safe Amount of chemical for animals
LD50/100
Safe Amount of chemical for humans
LD50/1000
Chronic Studies
Longer duration studies.
Epidemiology
Field of science that strives to understand the causes of illness and disease in human and wildlife populations
Retrospective Studies
Monitor people who have been exposed to a chemical sometime in the past.
Prospective Studies
Monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Synergistic Interactions
Two risks together would cause more harm than one individually.
Routes of Exposure
Ways an individual might come into contact with a chemical
Solubility
How well a chemical can dissolve in a liquid.
Biomagnification
Increase in the increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain.
Persistance
How long the chemical remains in the environment.
Environmental Hazard
Anything in environment that can cause harm.
Risk Assessment
Identify the hazard, characterize toxicity, determine extent of exposure.
Risk Acceptance
Determine level of acceptable risk, balanced against social, economic, and political considerations.
Risk Management
Determine policy with input from private citizens, industry, and interest groups.
Innocent Until Proven Guilty Principle
Based on philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until scientific data can demonstrate harm. Allows introduction more quickly, but can harm environment and people for a long time before evidence exists.
Precautionary Principle
Based on philosophy that when a hazard is plausible but not yet certain we should take actions to reduce or remove the hazard. Fewer chemicals enter environment but reduce financial motivation to invest in chemical research.
Stockholm Convention
Produced list of 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced. Including DDT and PCBs.
REACH
Established Precautionary Principle in Europe.