57 terms

Environmental Science for AP Friedland and Relyea Chapter 17


Terms in this set (...)

Any impaired function of the body with a characteristic set of symptoms.
Infectious Diseases
Caused by pathogens
Chronic Diseases
Slowly impair the functioning of a person's body
Acute Diseases
Rapidly impair the functioning of a person's body.
Pathogen causes a rapid increase in disease
Epidemic over a large area
Most familiar historical disease. Transmitted by flea bites or fleas on rodents. Swollen glands, black spots on skin, and extreme pain.
Caused by mosquitoes. Flu-like symptoms. Eradicated from US because of widespread mosquito killing with pesticides like DDT.
Infects lungs, airborne when someone coughs. Infected may not show symptoms. Cured with antibiotics, but when people don't take for full amount of time, drug resistant strains form.
Emergent Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases that were previously not described or have not been common prior to the past 20 years.
STD and through sharing blood and needles. Weakens immune system.
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
High death rate of infected. Fever, vomited, internal and external bleeding.
Mad Cow Disease
Caused by prions. Loss of coordination, brain damage then death.
Usually useful proteins in a cows brain that can mutate into harmful pathogens.
Bird Flu
H1N1. From close contact with birds.
West Nile Virus
Transmitted among birds by mosquitoes. Spread to humans by mosquitoes. Inflammation of brain.
Chemicals that disrupt nervous systems.
Chemicals that cause cancer.
Carcinogens that cause damage to genetic material of a cell.
Chemicals that interfere with the normal development of embryos or fetuses.
Chemicals that cause allergic reactions.
Endocrine Disruptors
Chemicals that interfere with normal functioning of hormones.
Paint, gas. Neurotoxin. Impaired learning, nervous system disorders, death
Coal burning, fish consumption. Neurotoxin. Damaged brain, kidneys, liver, and immune system.
Mining, groundwater. Carcinogen. Cancer
Building materials. Carcinogen. Impaired breathing, lung cancer.
Industry. Carcinogen. Cancer, impaired learning, liver damage.
Soil, water. Carcinogen. Lung cancer.
Vinyl Chloride
Industry, water from vinyl chloride pipes. Carcinogen. Cancer.
Alcoholic beverages. Teratogen. Fetuses with reduced fetal growth, brain and nervous system damage.
Herbicide. Endocrine disruptor. Feminization of males, low sperm count.
Insecticide. Endocrine Disruptor. Feminization of males, thin eggshells of birds.
Plastics, cosmetics. Endocrine disruptors. Feminization of males.
Dose Response Studies
Expose plants or animals to different amounts of a chemical and then observe a variety of possible responses including mortality or changes in behavior or reproduction.
Acute Studies
Short studies such as dose response.
Lethal dose that kills 50 percent of population.
Sublethal effects
Effects that aren't death from a chemical.
Effective dose that harms 50 percent of population.
Safe Amount of chemical for animals
Safe Amount of chemical for humans
Chronic Studies
Longer duration studies.
Field of science that strives to understand the causes of illness and disease in human and wildlife populations
Retrospective Studies
Monitor people who have been exposed to a chemical sometime in the past.
Prospective Studies
Monitor people who might become exposed to harmful chemicals in the future.
Synergistic Interactions
Two risks together would cause more harm than one individually.
Routes of Exposure
Ways an individual might come into contact with a chemical
How well a chemical can dissolve in a liquid.
Increase in the increase in chemical concentration in animal tissues as the chemical moves up the food chain.
How long the chemical remains in the environment.
Environmental Hazard
Anything in environment that can cause harm.
Risk Assessment
Identify the hazard, characterize toxicity, determine extent of exposure.
Risk Acceptance
Determine level of acceptable risk, balanced against social, economic, and political considerations.
Risk Management
Determine policy with input from private citizens, industry, and interest groups.
Innocent Until Proven Guilty Principle
Based on philosophy that a potential hazard should not be considered a hazard until scientific data can demonstrate harm. Allows introduction more quickly, but can harm environment and people for a long time before evidence exists.
Precautionary Principle
Based on philosophy that when a hazard is plausible but not yet certain we should take actions to reduce or remove the hazard. Fewer chemicals enter environment but reduce financial motivation to invest in chemical research.
Stockholm Convention
Produced list of 12 chemicals to be banned, phased out, or reduced. Including DDT and PCBs.
Established Precautionary Principle in Europe.