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31 terms

22.2: Pulmonary Ventilation

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Respiratory Cycle
One complete inspiration and expiration is called a:
Diaphragm
The prime mover of pulmonary ventilation is the:
Valsalva Maneuver
Taking a deep breath, holding it by closing the glottis, and then contracting the abdominal muscles to raise abdominal pressure and push the organ contents out.
Ventral Respiratory Group
The primary generator of the respiratory rhythm; utilizes INSPIRITORY (I) NEURONS and EXPIRATORY (E) NEURONS):
Dorsal Respiratory Group
What issues output to the Ventral Respiratory Group (VRG) that modifies the respiratory rhythm to adapt to varying conditions (conditions outside of normal resting respiratory rhythm)?
Pneumotaxic Center
What receives input from hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex; issues output to both the DRG and VRG; hastens or delays the transition from inspiration to expiration, adapting breathing to special circumstances such as sleep, exercise, vocalization, and emotional responses?
Boyle's Law
State the appropriate law: The pressure of a given quantity o f gas is inversely proportional to its volume (assuming a constant temperature)
Charles's Law
State the appropriate law: The volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature (assuming a constant temperature)
Dalton's Law
State the appropriate law: The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.
Henry's Law
State the appropriate law: At the air-water interface, the amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air (assuming a constant temperature).
Intrapulmonary pressure
The internal pressure of the lungs is called the:
Transpulmonary Pressure
Intrapulmonary pressure - intrapleural pressure =
Pneumothorax
The presence of air in the pleural cavity:
Atelectasis
The collapse of part or all of a lung:
Bronchodilation
An increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:
Bronchoconstriction
A reduction in diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole is called:
Alveolar Ventilation Rate
Volume of ventilated air (by alveoli) X Respiratory rate =
Tidal Volume
Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing:
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort:
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with maximum effort:
Residual Volume:
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration; the amount that can never voluntarily be exhaled:
Vital Capacity
The amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with maximum effort; the deepest possible breath
ERV+TV+IRV
Vital Capacity (VC) =
Inspiratory Capacity
Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration:
TV+IRV
Inspiratory Capacity (IC) =
Functional Residual Capacity
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expiration:
RV+ERV
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) =
Total Lung Capacity
Maximum amount of air the lungs can contain:
RV+VC
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) =
Alveolar Ventilation Rate
The measurement that is most directly relevant to the body's ability to get oxygen to the tissues and dispose of carbon dioxide:
Eupnea
Normal relaxed breathing is referred to as: