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The Origins and Evolution of Diagnostic Medical Sonography
Terms in this set (89)
The systematic study of sound began in 500 BC with the Greek mathematician _______, who observed the relationship between sound pitch and frequency
Pythagoras is said to have invented the ______, an instrument used to study musical sounds
Archytas, motion, motion, motion
The Greek scholar ______ of Tarentum defined the nature of sound as being produced by the _______ of one object striking another with swift ______ producing a high pitch and slow ______ producing a low pitch.
It was not until 350 BC that _______ developed the theory of sound propagation (i.e. sound is carried to the ears by the movement of air)
______, a Roman philosopher was the first to compare sound waves with the waves produced by dropping a pebble into a calm body of water
The study of sound remained relatively dormant until the Middle Ages, but experienced a revival in the upsurge of scientific interest after the ______
In 1500, _______ became intrigued with the physical properties of sound, and is thought to have originated the idea that sound travels in waves. He is also credited with discovering that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.
Europeans did not begin extensive experiments on the nature of sound until 1638, when _______ demonstrated that the frequency of sound waves determines pitch.
In the 1600's, ________ announced the derivation of the theory of velocity, and the English chemist ______ popularized the theory of the elasticity of air
Theory of Sound
The end of the 19th century marked the beginning of the modern study of acoustics with the publication of __________ by British scientist Lord Rayleigh. In his remarkable book, Rayleigh gathered, clarified, and expanded the current knowledge of acoustics
sound with frequencies above he limits of human hearing
One of the first experiments dealing with _______ occurred in 1793 when Lazzarro Spallanzani, an Italian priest-scientist, studied the activities of bats.
Doppler, Doppler effect
The effect of motion on the pitch of sounds was first postulated by Austrian scientist ________ and named the _______ in his honor
In 1845, _____ formulated his principle that when a source of wave motion itself moves, the apparent frequency of the emitted wave changes
The field of ultrasound was made accessible in 1880 with the discovery by the ____ brothers of the phenomenon of piezoelectricity
the property of certain crystals that causes them to produce voltage when a mechanical pressure such as sound vibrations is applied to them
certain crystals will expand and contract slightly when placed in an alternating electric field.
________ permitted crystals to create an electric potential or voltage, making crystals useful as both receivers and sources of sound waves, from audible to ultrasound frequencies.
the Currie brothers
The accomplishments of ______ ultimately led to the development of the modern ultrasound transducer
During WWI, French physicist _______ and Constantin Chilowsky studied controlled sound frequency and intensity and discovered a way to use the property of echoing sound waves to detect underwater objects. Their device, the _______, was used extensively in the surveillance of German submarines.
In 1916, during WW I, the first submarine detected by the hydrophone was sunk. The studies of ____ and ____ laid the groundwork for the development of sonar in the next great war
_______ also discovered the harmful effects of ultrasound on marine life when he observed that small fish swimming through the ultrasound beams were killed instantly.
In 1938, _____ invented a sonic detector that was able to pick up the high frequency vibrations of bats and convert them into audible sounds
In 1927, ______ and _____ first discussed the destructive nature of ultrasound on biologic organisms and living tissue. The effect of high doses of ultrasonic energy on the body is as injurious as radiographs and atomic radiation. In lower doses, ultrasonic energy can be a therapeutic agent
sound at controlled high-level dose that is used to selectively break down diseased or damaged tissue
The effects produced by high-energy ultrasonic waves normally are ______ and arise from cavitation, intense mechanical stresses, or intense localized heating
Focused high energy ultrasound waves are used in _______ to remove unwanted tissue
The minimum damaging ultrasound dose is not easily defined at present, nor is it possible to correlate a definite type of tissue damage with a universally standardized dosage
______ ultrasonic waves can be used to visualize the interior of the body. An ultrasonic examination is noninvasive, and since the late 1960s, scientists have been painlessly probing the soft tissues of the human body, seeing with sound.
Karl Dussik, A-mode
In 1942, Austrian _______ was one of the first physicians to use ultrasound for diagnostic purposes. Using ______, the 1-D representation of reflected sound waves, he claimed that tumors of the brain could be detected ultrasonically.
a 1-dimensional representation of a reflected sound wave in a diagnostic scan. Also known as amplitude modulation
images of the brain created ultrasonically by Karl Dussik
From 1947 to 1949, _____, a Pennsylvania surgeon, working first at the Naval Research Institute and then with colleagues at the Mass Institute of Technology, successfully used ultrasound to detect gallstones embedded in animal tissues
______, a surgeon who emigrated from England to America, first thought of using ultrasound to detect tissue thickness. In his work at the University of Minnesota, he realized that cancerous tissues differed greatly from normal tissues.
Along with engineer John Reid, _____ constructed an early prototype breast scanner that employed the use of an externally placed water path.
Their B-Mode technique used 2-D presentations of echo-producing interfaces.
a 2-dimensional presentation of echo-producing interfaces. Also known as brightness modulation
______ also pioneered the development of early internal scanners, devising a rectal transducer to obtain images of the large bowel.
In Denver, radiologist ______ worked independently of the other groups. He has pursued an interest in diagnostic ultrasound since 1948, however, it was not until 1951, using surplus war electronic components, that he constructed a water path scanner.
Howry's water path scanner used a laundry tub and later a cattle tank for its first prototypes in which the subject or body part to be imaged was submersed in water.
The 1-D images were incomplete, so Howry joined forces with University of Colorado physician ______ to develop a compound scanner
pan, compound contact, bistable, bistable
The inconvenience of Howry and Holmes' compound scanner and method of scanning led to the development of a successful ____ scanner that permitted a patient to sit next to, but outside, a small pan of water through which a transducer moved.
Later, a ______ scanner, which allowed direct scanning of the body with the use of a light film of oil or lubricating gel was developed, eliminating the need for a water path. these early ______ images registered echoes on a phosphorous-coated oscilloscope screen as dots of light using a storage or ______ cathode ray tube.
an electrical device or circuit that as two stable states at any given time, so it is possible to switch between them
A major limitation of the _____ imaging technique (existing in either black or white) was that the storage phosphor was either "off" or "on". This resulted in a white dot form an echo, at or above threshold strength appearing on the screen. If the echo reflection was below the established threshold strength, no echo dot would be visible on the screen.
Physionics Engineering Porta-arm
Holmes, who helped Howry develop the contact scanner, worked closely with William Wright, an electronic engineer, to develop in 1962 the first commercially available portable ultrasonic system, a compound contact scanner known as the ________.
This system gained worldwide acceptance and use. The scanner was the direct precursor to the imaging systems in use today.
Inspired by the work of Howry and that of the Japanese, ______ began his study of diagnostic ultrasonography in the mid 1950s in Scotland. His interest developed from WWII experiences with the royal air force, during which he witnessed the ultrasonic testing of aircraft to develop metal stress and fatigue
______ proved that tumors possessed echo patterns different from those of normal tissue. Later, using borrowed equipment and an A-mode technique, he began detecting ovarian cysts, ascites, and polyhydramnios.
______ is credited with perfecting the A-mode measurement of the fetal biparietal diameter, making it possible to ultrasonically estimate fetal age, weight, and growth rate
Donald, B-mode, Donald
In 1957, ______ collaborated with industrial engineer Tom Brown to develop a contact compound scanner. They mounted in on a bedside table and suspended it over the patient. Manipulating the transducer by hand underneath the table, using the brightness modulation (_______) technique, _____ produced the first crude fetal scans.
Donald, Brown, diasonograph
By 1960, ____ and ____ had developed a medical sector scanner and later a hand-held scanner called the ______, suitable for commercial distribution>
Although ______ was quite involved in the research and development of ultrasound equipment, his primary interest was in applying diagnostic ultrasonography to his specialty of obstetrics and gynecology. He s credited to the diagnosis of multiple pregnancies, hydraminos, and hydatidiform mole, as well as the _____ bladder technique used in early pregnancy and gynecologic studies.
______'s crowning achievement occurred in 1954 when he was the first to demonstrate a fetal gestational sac, which earned him the title "father of obstetric ultrasound."
In 1954, Swedish physicist ______ and Dr. Ingle Elder used a flaw detector borrowed from the Malmo shipyards to demonstrate a motion display of the heart and intracardiac structures called ________.
presentation of temporal changes in echoes in which the depth of echo-producing interfaces is displayed along one axis, and time is displayed along the second acid. Also known as motion modulation or time-motion mode
M-mode was developed by employing both A and B mode techniques and adding a continuously moving display of the returning cardiac echoes. Elder identified the movement seen as the characteristic patterns of the anterior leaflet of the ______.
Dr. Sven Effert, placing a transducer on the heart, verified all of Elder and Hertz' previous identification and motion patterns, making apparent the potential of diagnostic ________.
Construction of echocardiography equipment would not occur, however, until cardiologist Claude Joyner and Reid at the University of Pennsylvania collaborated with _____ and _____ at the University of Colorado.
Oksala, Baum, Oksala, Baum
_____ and _____ each pioneered early opthalmologic ultrasound applications during the 1950s. _____ was the first to adapt A-mode technique for use in the eye and to correctly interpret the resulting ophthalmic data. ______ initially worked with A-mode presentation, but dissatisfied with its lack of precision, turned his efforts to applying B-mode techniques to ophthalmology.
______ and his colleagues were the first to employ ultrasonic frequencies of 10-15 MHz which produced significantly higher resolution
______ was also successful in producing a 3-D image of the eyes with what he called "third-generation" B-mode ultrasound equipment. The system employed successive scans at each millimeter of eye depth.
In the early 1960s, _______ was involved in the early investigation of ultrasound technology. His association with Smith-Kline Instruments resulted in the development and production of a water-bag and contact B-mode scanners, as well as A and M mode echocardiography systems.
He was later joined by ______, who was published extensively on wide-ranging clinical ultrasound subjects and was the first investigator outside of Europe to detail and methods and advantages of fetal cephalometry.
In New York City, ______ focused attention on abdominal and endoscopic ultrasound instruments and produced some of the earliest abdominal, transvesical, rectal, and transvaginal systems
In the late 1960s, ________, using surplus electronic war components assembled a sonar device that could explore the eye from the outside.
electronic equipment that provides visual images of varying electrical quantities
william fry, francis fry
Among the major contributors to the understanding of ultrasound applications in biology and medicine were ____, a physicist a the University of Illinois, and his brother ______, founder of Bioacoustics Research Laboratory
______, aided by a Navy research grant, explored the possibilities that high-intensity ultrasound eventually could provide a noninvasive, lower-risk surgical technique as compared with standard invasive surgery. He was also to find that ultrasound offered unique advantages in the investigation of how the brain worked. He designed a sophisticated system employing a multiple transducer system of focused, high-intensity sound beams that could produce a pinpoint lesion without damaging surrounding tissue.
As early as 1967, _____ conducted extensive experiments that demonstrated no harmful effects from the ultrasonic isonation of human cells.
the formation of cavities in a body tissue or an organ due to the sudden formation and collapse of low-pressure bubbles by means of mechanical forces
Guidelines on Biological Safety
Developed through the early research carried out at various American universities by Nyborg, Carson, Gramiak, William and Francis Fry, O'Brien, and Ziskin on the in vitro effects of ultrasonic isonation in producing heating, cavitation, and bubbling in tissue.
The problem with bistable images was their failure to show subtle ______ of soft tissue.
analog scan converter
The development of the _______, an advance that was primarily due to work started by Kossoff and Garrett in Australia, allowed reflected echoes returned to the body to be processed as signals by a computer-processor technology. This allowed them to be scaled.
analog scan converter
a device in which data are represented by continuously variable, measurable, physical qualities such as length, width, voltage, or pressure
clinically relevant echoes reflecting from the internal texture of soft tissues are displayed and recorded in varying shades of gray on a television monitor.
digital scan converters
imaging device that uses a stable electronic circuit to store and manipulate ultrasonic images in memory. The device then reconstructs and displays these images simultaneously to create one single image.
One of the earliest digital scan converters was produced in 1976 and was capable of producing _____ shades of gray.
Ultrasonic Institute Octoson
In 1975, Kossoff and his colleagues created the _______, a rapid multi transducer water-bath scanner. Using the latest scan technology, it produced high-resolution compound scans at an astonishing rate of one scan per second.
Japanese work in diagnostic ultrasonography, which began in 1950, roughly paralleled the developments taking place in Europe and the US. The Japanese places considerably more emphasis on _____ and _____ that scientists in any other country.
In the US, serious _____ ultrasound research was no undertaken until the late 1950s.
Medical ultrasound uses the ______, in which the frequency of sound increases or decreases as the source moves toward or away from the transducer to recognize echo signals from moving reflectors.
change in the observed frequency of a wave, occurring when the source and observer are in motion relative to each other. Frequency increases as the source and observer approach each other and decreases as they move apart. Any source motion causes a real shift in wave frequencies, while the observer motion produces only an apparent shift in frequency.
amplitubes, analog scan converter
Bistable images failed to show the subtle _____ of soft tissue. This problem was resolved with the development of the _______ by Kossoff and Garrett and gray-scale imaging.
Japanese work in ultrasound began in the 1950s and roughly paralleled developments seen in the US and Europe. The Japanese, though, placed more emphasis on _____ and echocardiography.
______ refers to images produced by automated scanners with sufficient speed to visualize and record moving structures, as well as stationary echo reflectors.
The first moving ultrasound images were acheived with an instrument called a fast ______ which was developed by German scientists Krause and Soldner. This was eventually marketed as the _______. It produced 15 images per second and used rotating transducers housed in front of a parabolic mirror in a water coupling system.
The 1980s ushered in an era devoted to improving image ________ by means of innovative and sophisticated transducer designs.
The advent of real-time imaging had its greatest impact on the field of _______
_____ and ______ introduced the concept of the fetal biophysical prodile, the ultrasound equivalent of tan intrauterine American Pediatric Gross Assessment Record to evaluate fetal well-being.
In the late 1990s, _______, a quantitative method of characterizing/recognizing various tissue types, revived the old quest for tissue characterization. In specific patients, the new approach could dramatically improve resolution by reducing artifacts, acheiving better penetration, and selectively processing return echoes.
_____ produces a volume rather than a single angle approach
In ______, numerous images are captured in rapid succession, creating a motion video of the target.
a promising new hand-held device that was developed by researchers at Carnegie Mellon Institute. The instrument positions a real-time ultrasound scanner and monitor on opposite sides of a see-through mirror. When the device is placed against the patient's body, the monitor projects the ultrasound image onto the mirror. Viewing the image directly prevents the need to look away from the patient to view a traditional real-time display in order to placce biopsy needles and catheters.
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