Lecture 1 - Perspectives and Definitions

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How much of our messages is communicated through our non-verbals?
Up to 90% when expressing emotional ideas, less when expressing more technical/abstract concepts, on average about 60-65%.
Why study non-verbal interactions?
Decrease the inaccuracy of judgements, be more confident and effective in our interactions (including intercultural interactions)
What is non-verbal communication?
Communication produced by means other than the semantic definitions of words, i.e., not the content of the symbols
Digital vs Analog Communication
Digital: You can start and stop it Analog: It's always going on, it can't go off (posture, face, eyes, hands, etc)
What are the 6 ways non-verbals and verbals are connected?
1. Repeating (saying "twice" and then holding out two fingers)
2. Substituting (just holding out two fingers)
3. Complementing ("I caught a big fish" and then holding arms out to show how big, or "It's over there" and pointing. Non-verbals that add information to the verbal statement)
4. Accenting/Moderating (referring to intensity, either heightening it or muting it)
5. Regulating (referring to conversation i.e. asking questions by raising pitch, talking faster/louder when someone is trying to interrupt, inhaling more audibly when trying to enter a conversation, etc)
6. Conflicting/Incongruent (when the verbal and nonverbal conflict, like sarcasm)
What are the 5 functions of non-verbal communication?
1. Creating impressions
2. Managing interactions (regulating)
3. Expressing emotions
4. Sending relational messages
5. Sending incongruent messages
6. Influencing others
What are the 3 primary units of non-verbal communication?
1. Communication environment: physical environment, proxemics (how close or far you are standing to someone), territory
2. Physical characteristics of communicators: appearance and adornments
3. Various behaviors of communicators: kinesics (oculesics, gestures, facial expressions), etc)
How are non-verbals influenced by context? (3 things)
1. Culture
2. Relationship
3. Situation