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Ch. 20 Facts and Terms
Terms in this set (23)
A nation composed of people who are joined together by the bonds of a common landuage, customs, culture, and history, and therefore should be administered by the same government. They believed that ethnic boundaries and political boundaries should be the same
Nationalists argued things like gathering Italians into a unified Italy or Germans into a unified Germany would promote economic and administrative efficiency. Some nationalists claimed that nations were distinct creations of God. Others claimed a place for their nations in the divine order of things.
A political group advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
A political idea that the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners.
Austrian foreign minister who controlled the Congress of Vienna. He wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe.
Politically active students in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles. They founded on liberal and nationalistic ideals. Their beliefs threatened the conservative leaders at the time, who attempted to shut them down through the Carlsbad Decrees.
He was a Burschenschaften member who assassinated the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue. Sand was later tried and publicly executed, and became a martyr in the eyes of some nationalists.
Resolutions adopted by the ministers of German states at a conference at Carlsbad that was convened and dominated by Prince Metternich following the murder of August von Kotzebue by a student. The decrees provided for uniform press censorship and close supervision of the universities, with the aim of suppressing all liberal agitation against the conservative governments of Germany, particularly by the student organizations. The resolutions, ratified by the diet of the German Confederation, remained in force until 1848.
Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code, honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and established a two-house legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers and the Chamber of Deputies.
Some of France who favored a return to a monarchical system dominated by a privileged aristocracy and allied with the Catholic church.
Concert of Europe
Loose series of European alliances where nations would help one another if a revolution broke out. It didn't stop revoltuions from occurring, but it did stop many nations from fighting each other.
Americans who hesitated to take up arms against England. Many were royal appointees, Anglican clergymen, or Atlantic merchants. They were poorly organized and of limited help to British armies, but the Patriots persecuted them.
An organized rebellion against the Corn Laws that was broken up violently by the English cavalry. The Peterloo Massacre is important because it shows how governments were willing to violently suppress internal opposition.
Greece wanted freedom from the Ottoman Empire and a unified Greece. Became a well-known revolution, people from all over came to fight. The big powers ended up helping them.
Corn Law of 1815
A law passed in England to maintain high prices for domestically produced grain by levying important duties on foriegn grain. Law helped mark the abandonment by British ruling of traditional role of protector of poor
Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.
Cato Street Conspiracy
Following the Peterloo Massacre and passing of the Six Acts (which hindered free speech) a group of revolutionaries came up with a plan to assassinate several cabinet ministers, overthrow the government and start a radical revolution, the plan failed and they were caught on Cato Street in London.
He inherited the throne after Louis XVIII died. He tried to rule as absolute monarch. He suspended the power of the legislature and the cictizens revolted and Revolutionof 1830 started
Alexander I (Russia)
The Tsar that brought the Treaty of Tilsit. He also turned permanently away from reform. Both at home and abroad, he took the lead in suppressing liberalism and nationalism. There would be no significant change to tsarist autocracy until his death.
Nicholas I (Russia)
The heir to the throne after Alexander I's death. He fought long with his brother Constantine who also didn't want the throne. He was not as popular as Constantine but was not reactionary. He knew economic growth and reform would help Russia but ultimately suppressed it and brought on the Decembrist Revolt.
Revolutions of 1830
Liberals and nationalists throughout Europe openly revolted against conservative governments; Belgians declared their independence from Dutch control; Poles staged a revolt against Russia, etc.This happened because Louis XVIII only granted a small percentage of people the right to vote and Charles X attack of Algeria and as a result, he censored the press and limited the voting rights of the wealthy
Catholic Emancipation Act
An Act passed by Parliament in 1829 that gave Irish Catholics the right to vote and run for political office; this was considered a major victory for Irish Nationalism.
Great Reform Bill
Reformed British house of Commons and expanded electorate to include wider variety of propertied classes. Laid groundwork for further reforms in British constitution
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