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Issue Advertising

Promoting a particular position or an issue by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate and, until 2004 had not been subject to regulation.

Selection Perception

The process by which individuals perceive what they want to in media messages

Selective Exposure

The process by which individuals screen out messages that do not conform to their own biases

Fairness Doctrine

FCC policy that required holders of radio and TV licenses to ensure that different viewpoints were presented about controversial issues or persons; largely repeated in 1987

Mass media

Means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.

News media

Media that emphasize the news.

Horse race

A close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.

Political socialization

The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.

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