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Terms in this set (16)
Measures aspects of development that may not easily be quantifiable. Developed due to recent emphasis on measuring development in terms of issues (Freedom, Democracy,Sustainability e.t.c) rather than by statistics. May be more problematic but reflect accurately the ways in which development now viewed. e.g. Happy Planet Index (HPI)
Measure only ONE aspect of development e.g. GDP, GDP/Capita, Life Expectancy, Doctor to patient ratio, Infant Mortality Rate, Maternal Mortality Rate, Calories per day, Birth Rates, social indicators e.t.c.
More comprehensive as they measure more than one aspect of development. e.g. Human Development Index (HDI), Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI), Gender-Related Development Index (GRHDI)
GDP, GDP/ Capita, GNI, GNP/Capita
Gross Domestic Product: Total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year.
GDP/Capita: GDP divided by population.
Gross National Income: Sum added by all producers, plus taxes and income from abroad in US$
Gross National Product/Capita: Total value of economic production of country divided by population.
Advantages of using GDP/GNI
Useful figure for comparing countries.
Rank Countries to establish fair system of aid payments.
Good indicator of state of economy & provision of services.
Fairly easy to calculate from official government figures.
Disadvantages of using GDP/GNI
Can hide inequalities: does NOT show distribution of wealth. In LEDCs may be v. few extremely wealthy people and large majority at subsistence level. GDP figures less reliable where markets are less-well developed; trading done through bartering and where much production takes place for personal subsistence.
Human Development Index (HDI)
First used by UN in 1990s: updated regularly using up-to-date statistics from UN. Uses LIFE EXPECTANCY (from birth); EDUCATION (Adult Literacy + average no. of school years) INCOME (GDP/capita - converted to purchasing power). Closely dependent on GNP but gives more rounded view of development. Give index between 0 and 1.
Advantages with using HDI
Regarded as better indicator of development than GDP. Takes into account social aspects: Allows Geographers understand the quality of life of a country. Key aspect in measuring development. Updated.
Disadvantages with using HDI
Based on assumption; less reliable
Does not show cultural aspects
Does not show regional differences within a country.
Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI)
Used before HDI. Average of three statistics: Basic Literacy Rate, Infant Mortality Rate and Life Expectancy at age 1, all equally weighted on a 0-100 scale.
Advantages of PQLI
Easily Calculable; increased validity as takes into account more aspects of development. Indicator for other aspects of social progress such as nutrition levels. Acts as surrogate for other basic human needs educators. Education aspect reflects well-being and skills of an LDC, beneficial in showing their progress as a country.
Disadvantages of PQLI
Too specific; does not take into account economic aspects which shows a country's ability to invest in vital services that could enhance development. individual indicators gets lost and that the appropriate weighting scheme for the selected indicators is far from clear.
Gender-Related Development Index
Addresses gender-gaps in life expectancy and income. Life Expectancy - GDI assumes women live five years longer on average than men. Income - GDI considers income gaps in term of actual earned income. Cannot be used independently as indicator of gender gaps.
Happy Planet Index
Experienced Well-Being X Life Expectancy divided by Ecological Footprint.
Advantages of GDI
could be used to assess inequalities not only between men and women, but also between other groups such as rich and poor, young and old, etc. Addresses differences in gender that can hinder development.
Disadvantages of GDI
Measure very hard to calculate - data not easily available in many countries. The measure is very hard to calculate uniformly and internationally. GDI can be discriminatory in itself. Does not take into account sex-selective abortions - penalty levied against country for gender inequality is less as it affects less of population. Heavily dependent on GDP and GNP (earned income accounts for more than 90% of gender penalty.) Does not consider value of informal work, men may make more money than women but income shared.
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