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Terms in this set (35)
Old (Ancien) Regime
Political and social system of France prior to French Revolution, everyone was below a king
Status of a person recognized under the law as being a legal member of a country
Principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of the people
"Liberty, equality, fraternity"
National motto of France that first appeared during the French Revolution
A body of unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct
God, the soul and spirits are considered a part of nature and not seperate
Inalienable rights that cannot be taken away, "Life, liberty and property" (Locke)
Belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically a being that does not intervene with the universe after he created it
Rene Descartes "The Discourse on Method"
"I think, therefore I am", thinking and existing cannot be faked, you are who you are for real, great philosopher
John Locke "The Natural Rights of Man"
Inalienable rights, "life, liberty and property", all men begin at a blank state and is filled through life experience, his book was a major principle source of empiricism. He believes men are free by nature and have the right to revolt.
Isaac Newton "Principia"
Wrote a book on the laws of motion and gravity, he is a strict follower of deism and God keeps the planets in a specifically planned out orbit
Created idea of "General Will" the will of a majority of citizens and government must be equal for everyone, believes man has little freedom and government isn't holding up their side of the bargain, nature shouldn't be alienated by urban cities, inequality is unnatural and wrong
"The Social Contract" Rosseau
People have to sacrifice freedom in order for protection by the government
Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire)
Published the "Enlightened Despot" promoting a type of monarch that will advertise education and promote Enlightenment ideas, but won't sacrifice their own power for it. Wrote "Letters of the English", praising the English monarchs for not have excessive possessions
Describes the hardships of life that rich men are exposed to
Thomas Hobbes "Leviathon"
Writes against the separation of power and believes that everyone should give up their power to an absolute monarch because all of mankind is naturally evil
Father of Taxonomy and invented binomial nomenclature
Montesquieu "The Spirit of Laws" 1748
Supports the balance of powers and checks and balances, wrote a book about it
Adam Smith "Wealth of Nations"
Describes how nations gain wealth and says that government involvement in economics is not necessary, starting the idea of laissez faire
Wrote the "Encyclopedia", did not include (peasants rights?) and has many different revisions with many contributers
Alexander Pope "Essay on Man"
A poem that rationalizes and makes clear the ways of God to mankind
Economic group that believed that agriculture was the main source of wealth and that government should not be involved in economics
Founded the ideas of physiocrats
Tried to describe how the mind works by acquiring "knowledge" and concluded that there can be no knowledge without experience
Atheist and well known for writing against religion, most famously "The System of Nature"
Marquis de Beccaris "On Crimes and Punishment"
Condemned torture and the death penalty and believed everyone has a right to a fair trial
A political philosophy founded on the ideas of liberty and equality
Governments should derive from a body of fundamental law
The theory that all knowledge is derived from self experience, supported by John Locke and David Hume
A theory that certain knowledge is impossible
A belief or theory that actions should be based on reason and knowledge rather than religion and emotional response
Everything can be interpreted through experiments and science
Mary Wollstonecraft "A Vindication of Women's Rights"
Argued that women can be as smart as men, they just aren't because they aren't educated
Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
Political clubs formed by women during the French Revolution
Olympe de Gouges "The Rights of Women"
French playwright whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience