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50 terms

GRE Psychology Test: Language (FOR GAME PLAYING)

GRE Psych prep, psychology, psycholinguistics, Language
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language
the meaningful arrangement of sounds
psycholinguistics
the study of the psychology of language
phonemes
sounds that make up words but have no meaning
morphemes
words or parts of words that have meaning; the smallest unit of meaning in language
phrase
a group of words that function when put together as a single syntactic part of a sentence
syntax
the arrangement of words into sentences as prescribed by a particular language
grammar
the overall rules of the interrelationship between morphemes and syntax
morphology or morphological rules
grammar rules; how to group morphemes
prosody
tone inflections, accents, and other accepts of pronunciation that carry meaning
Chomsky
most important figure in psycholinguistics
Chomsky
developed theory of TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR
Chomsky
developed theory of LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE
deep structure
the underlying meaning of words
surface structure
the way words are organized
transformational grammar
differentiates between surface structure (organization of words) and deep structure (underlying meaning of words)
Language Acquisition Device
Chomsky's idea of innate language acquisition positing that children have inborn ability to adopt generative grammar rules of the language they hear, they only need be exposed to language in order to apply this
overregulation
overapplication of grammar rules; "I founded the toy," "I love eating toasts"
overextension
generalizing with names of things done through characteristics and not logic; a child calling all furry things "doggie"
telegraphic speech
speech without articles or extras, similar to how it may appear in a telegram; "me go"
holophrastic speech
when a child uses one word to convey a whole sentence; "me!" meaning "give that to me"
girls
_________ are faster and more accurate with language learning (girls or boys)
bilingual children
_________ are slower at language learning
reading and writing
_________ and _________ are processed in the same regions of the brain as producing and understanding speech
alexia
the inability to read
agraphia
the inability to write
True
True or False? People who have alexia may have no problems speaking or understanding speech.
Nouns
children usually use _______ first.
one noun and one verb
Children usually speak this pattern as their first phrases: _________________
one year
time when a child first speaks word(s)
two years
time when a child speaks >50 words, usually in two-three word phrases
three years
time when a child speaks ~1,000 word vocabulary, but has many grammatical errors in use
four years
time when a child's grammar problems when using language are random exceptions
Whorf
studied Hopi language
Whorf
posited the Whorfian hypothesis
Whorf
posited that how a culture says things influences a culture's perspective
whorfian hypothesis
idea that how a culture says things and uses language influences a culture's perspective
nonsexist language
the whorfian hypothesis is often used to support the argument for _________________
Hopi
Benjamin Whorf studied this language: __________
Roger Brown
research found that children's use of grammar proceeds through the formation of hypothesis about syntax and then self-correction with experience
Katherine Nelson
found that language begins to develop with onset of ACTIVE SPEECH, rather than during first year of only listening
Nelson
this psycholinguistic discovered that baby's language development doesn't occur during their first year of life, when they are only listening
Labov
studied "Black" English (Ebonics)
Labov
found that Ebonics has a complex internal structure and isn't just incorrect English
Vygotsky and Luria
Russia's best known psycholinguistics
Vygotsky and Luria
found that word meanings are altered by interpersonal experience
Vygotsky and Luria
asserted that language is a tool involved in (and not merely a byproduct of) the development of ABSTRACT THINKING
Osgood
created SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS
Osgood
research found that subcultures form different connotations (implied meanings) of words
Connotation
Osgood's SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS research showed the existence of _______________ for subcultures
connotation
implied meaning of a word, shared by subcultures, as shown through Osgood's Semantic Differential Chart research