Environmental Chapter 6

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Terms in this set (...)

what type of curve would be on a graph of human population growth?
exponential- J curve
3 main reasons for human population growth
1. ability to expand into diverse habitats (all over the world)
2. increase of agriculture (to feed us)
3. sanitation systems and control of infectious diseases
in what types of settings does population growth occur
middle to low income countries, the countries that are already most populated
population change =
(births + immigration) - (death + emigration)
crude birth rate/crude death rate
# of births/deaths per 1,000 people. Easier than counting every single one, use a formula
top 3 most populated countries
1. China
2. India
3. USA (but way behind these 2)
TFR- total fertility rate
average # of children born to women in their reproductive years
Stats about US population
4X in last 100 years (quadrupled)
baby boom- higher TFR
439 million by 2050
why is infant mortality considered a barometer of a society's quality of life
b/c infant mortality usually occurs due to malnutrition, under-nutrition and infectious diseases. If infants are living, means they are healthy, not affected by those things.
immigration
legal and illegal
39% of growth
what country is growing the fastest
USA
world population increases by how much each day
225,000
how many people worldwide by 2050
9.5 billion
how many people worldwide live in poverty
1.4 billion
how many people worldwide in 1927
2 billion, less than 50 years later=4 billion, less than 25 years later= 6 billion
cultural carrying capacity
max number of people that the earth can support at a reasonable level of comfort, without hurting the planets future
2 factors of overall health in a country
life expectancy and infant mortality rate
How have humans degraded the natural capital to meet their own needs and wants
increasing use of productivity, relying on fossil fuels, using renewable resources faster than they can be replenished, reducing biodiversity
The total fertility rate in developing countries...
decreased from 6.5 to 2.8 between 1950-2009
age structure
number or percentage of males and females in young, middle, and older age groups
3 different groups in a population
Prereproductive
Reproductive
Postreproductive
A country with many young people grows....
rapidly
A country with many older people....
will decline
How age structure affects the USA
36% baby boomers, graying of America, changes in the economy
Declines in the population
baby bust or birth dearth
labor shortages
strains on public services
fewer taxpayers
AIDS tragedy
1.disrupts social and economic
2.removes productive young adults from work force and from reproducing
3.Life expectancy 30-40 years old
How many people have died of AIDS worldwide
over 27 million
3 things that slow population growth
promote economic development, family planning, empowering women
promote economic development
preindustrial- high infant mortality rate, high death rate
transitional- rapid growth, improved food and healthcare
industrial- growth slows, decrease in death rates, better food, health, education
postindustrial- growth levels off t declines
family planing
birth spacing, birth control, health care, increased availability of contraception
family planning in developing countries
1/2 pregnancies are unplanned, need to invest in family planning, reduce poverty, elevate social and economic status of women
empowering women
illiterate women make up 64% of world population, daughters not sent to school, left behind to do chores
Chinas population
1. One child families, boys still preferential over girls
2. Drastically reduced birth rate
strict family planning
3. BUT- population rapidly aging, not enough young people to support elderly
Baby bust
when the total population falls below 1.5 children per couple
What % of world lives in urban areas?
50%
Increased from 2%-50% from 1850-2009
Trends in Urban growth
developing countries have more urban growth, poverty increases
pros and cons of moving to the city
pros- better working conditions, better housing, better sanitation
cons- aging infrastructure, budget issues, poverty
urban sprawl
the growth of a population around a city, forming towns, suburbs
Why urban sprawl?
affordable land, lots of land, cheap gas,
Cons of urban sprawl
increased auto use b/c no mass trans., decreased energy efficiency, destruction of croplands, economic deaths of city (people move businesses out)
Advantages of urbanization
economic development, innovation, education, tech advances, better meds, recycling
Disadvantages of urbanization
unsustainable systems, water problems, pollution (air, water, noise, light), lack of vegetation
Facts about Mexico City
2nd most populous in world, severe noise, water and air pollution, 50% unemployed, fecal snow, premature deaths, pollution so bad like smoking 3 packs a day
transportation- compact cities
walking, biking, mass transit- Hong Kong, Tokyo, car sharing-Germany
to reduce auto use
user-pays system, tax breaks, 1.2 million deaths from auto accidents
eco cities
green city, renewable energy, build and design for people, prevent pollution, reduce wastes/recycle, urban gardens
Curitiba, Brazil
eco city, inexpensive mass trans, high rises with stores on bottom, pedestrian friendly, 1.5 million trees planted, services for poor
eco cities in USA
Portland, Oregon
Davis, California
Olympia, Washington
Chattanooga, Tennessee
hypercity
more than 20 million people, Tokyo
urban cities cover 2% land but use what % of resources?
75%
weather conditions in a city
more cloud cover, higher temperatures, more fog, more precipitation
some described as heat island
direction population is moving in US
south and west
What % of urban transportation is by car
98%
What would price of TAX be on gallon of gas if included environmental factors and insurances
$12