History of our World Chapter 14

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Terms in this set (...)

Middle Ages
years between ancient and modern times
Medieval
referring to Middle Ages
Feudalism
system in which land was owned by kings or lords but held by vassals in return for their loyalty
vassals
serf or servant protected by the lord or landowner
fief
land was called this
manor
a large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord
serf
a farm worker considered part of the manor on which he or she worked
Knight
a young man who received honor and land in exchange for serving his lord (landowner) as a soldier
began about A.D. 500 and ended about A.D. 1500
What is the time span for the Middle Ages?
1. Kept Western Europe united, 2. established schools, 3. spread the Christian religion, 4. issued money and 5. improved the economy
What are Charlemagne's accomplishments as ruler?
Vikings
skilled sailors and tough warriors who came from northern Europe
When Charlemagne died, the empire was divided among his 3 sons who fought one another and weakened the empire. Invasions from outsiders like the Vikings, helped the empire collapse or go away
Why did Charlemagne's empire fall apart?
THe lords gave vassals a share of land in exchange for their loyalty.
What did lords give vassals in exchange for the vassals' loyalty?
Because they were isolated
Why did manors have to be self-sufficient (supplying their needs -- food, clothing, etc.)?
A noblewoman managed the household, provided medical care, and supervised servants.
What was the role of the noblewomen?
Medieval peasants worked hard most of their lives, lived in one room huts, slept on uncomfortable hay beds and ate simple foods
What was life like for medieval peasants?
section 2
section 2
Clergy
sons with authority to perform religious services
excommunication
expelling someone from the church
guild
a medieval organization of crafts workers and tradespeople
apprentice
an unpaid person training in a craft or trade
chivalry
the code of honorable conduct for knights
troubadour
a traveling poet and musician of the Middle Ages
The church gained political power because of combination of religious power and economic power from collecting taxes and being the single largest landowner in Europe.
How did the church gain political power?
gargoyles
carved stone figures that sit high on the walls of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France.
flying buttresses
stone arches that carry much of the roof's weight and allow windows to take the place of solid stone walls
The church had power in every kingdom, every fief, and every village.
Where all did the church have power?
the Pope
Who had the most authority in the church?
The opportunity to receive an education was offered to women by convents.
How did women receive an education?
Monasteries and Convents
religious communities where people who wanted to dedicate their lives to God lived and worked.
Men called Monks
Who lived in the Monasteries
Women called Nuns
Who lived in Convents?
Because of Feudalism and the Church
How did Western Europe become a safer place for travelers?
People brought back goods from places that they had visited and introduced them to other people. People then wanted these goods so trade was introduced.
How was trade introduced?
Towns began to grow as market places began to make trade more convenient.
Why did towns begin grow?
black death
a disease called the bubonic plague which was spread by fleas and killed one third of Europe's population.
1. Cities attracted traveling scholars and
2. Centers for learning and art
Advantages of living in a medieval city were:
section 3
section 3
Holy Land
Jerusalem and the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught
crusades
series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy Land back from Muslim control
Jerusalem
a city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
pilgrim
a person who journeys to a sacred place
Religious pilgrims
What type of people were attracted to Jerusalem?
1. Wanted to conquer Holy Land to enable Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem.
2. Hoped Europeans would unite against a common enemy and stop fighting each other.
3. Hoped to gain power and fame for himself and the Church
What were the Pope's reasons for the crusades?
The First and Second Crusades were launched to gain control of Jerusalem
Why were the First and Second Crusades begun?
the First -- Succeeded
the Second -- had little success
Were the Crusades successful?
Because he thought it was as important to Muslims as it was to Christians
Why did Saladin refus to give up Jerusalem?
1. Helped trade; 2. Helped cities grow; and 3. Began use of money; and 4. Introduced new ideas and technology.
What were the results of the Crusades?
section 4
section 4
Magna Carta
the "great Charter", in which the King's power over his nobles were limited
by King John of England in 1215
Who agreed to the Magna Carta and what year was it signed?
model parliament
council of lords, clergy, and common people that advised the English king on government matters
Hundred Years' War
series of conflicts between England and France 1337-1453
Nation
Community of people that share territory, government, language, and culture
nation building
the process of combining smaller communities into a single nation with a national identity and a national government
because he made them pay heavy taxes and jailed his enemies who were not guilty
Why did King John anger the people of England?
because he objected to the appointment of a bishop and seized (took) Church property.
How did King John anger the Church?
It helped unite England by giving more power to the Great Council
How did the Magna Carta help unite England?
Joan of Arc
a French peasant girl that led French during the Hundred Years' War and defeated the English.
She was later captured by England and burned at the stake after she was convicted of witchcraft.
What happened to Joan of Arc?
1. Developed new weapons increasing the need for soldiers instead of knight
2. Inspired "national feeling"
3. Gave kings more power but also gave Parliament (government) more power
4. Set modern boundaries for England and France
What was the result of the Hundred Years' War:
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