Pearson World HIstory - Reading Guide 8.4, 12.1 and 12.2
Terms in this set (36)
The Ottoman empire enjoyed a golden age under this sultan , who ruled from 1520 to 1566. His people called him "the Lawgiver," while Europeans called him_______________ the Magnificent. A brilliant general, he modernized the army and conquered many new lands.
Members of the elite forces of the Ottoman army.
Shah Abbas the Great
(1571-1629) was the shah of the Safavid dynasty from 1588 until his death. He drove Ottoman and Uzbek troops from Persia and sponsored a golden age of Persian arts and achievement.
(1500-1558) served as Holy Roman emperor (1519-1521), during the time of Martin Luther's reformation efforts, king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556), and archduke of Austria as Charles I (1519-1521), and inherited the Spanish and Hapsburg empiresHis immense empire included large areas of Europe. A staunch Catholic, he rejected Luther's doctrines. The Protestant upheaval, along with political pressures, led Charles to voluntarily give up his throne. He divided the empire between his son and his brother. Charles entered a Catholic monastery where he remained until his death.
(1527-1598) served as king of the Spaniards (1556-1598) and king of the Portuguese as Philip I (1580-1598), and strong supporter of the Roman Catholic Counter-Reformation. Under his rule, the Spanish empire was at its strongest; however, he was unable to control the revolt of the Netherlands and failed in his attempt to invade England.
French Protestants of the 1500s and 1600s
Edict of Nantes
law issued by French king Henry IV in 1598 giving more religious freedom to French Protestants
(1585-1642) considered one of the greatest politicians in history, he played an important role in France's history while serving as chief minister to Louis XIII.
Balance of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Peace of Westphalia
series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War
(1717-1780) was the archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740-1780), wife and empress of the Holy Roman emperor Francis I (1745-1765) and mother of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II (1765-1790).
area of eastern and central Europe which came under Polish and German rule in the Middle Ages and from 1701 was ruled by the German Hohenzollern dynasty
Frederick II (the Great)
(1712-1786) succeeded his father, Frederick William I, to serve as king of Prussia (1740-1786).
Peter the Great
(1672-1725), tsar of Russia, reigned jointly with his half-brother Ivan V (1682-1696) and alone (1696-1725). He was proclaimed emperor in 1721. He was one of Russia's greatest statesmen, organizers, and reformers.
landowning nobles in Russia under the tsars
Catherine the Great
(1729-1796) was the German-born empress of Russia (1762-1796) who led her country in becoming part of the political and cultural life of Europe.
What impact did gunpowder have on the Ottoman and Safavid empires?
It ledto the use of new weapons such as cannons that blasted through defensive walls. Later, muskets made a new kind of army possible, giving firepower to ordinary foot soldiers and reducing the importance of mounted warriors. They became known as :"gunpowder empires"
Describe the Ottoman Empire's government and economy.
It controlled major trade routes between Europe, Africa, and Asia. As a result, Istanbul became one of the great trading capitals of the world., most powerful empire in both Europe and the Middle East for centuries. At its height, the empire stretched from Hungary to Arabia and Mesopotamia and across North Africa. A huge bureaucracy supervised the business of government, and the powerful military kept the peace. Law was based on the Sharia, supplemented by royal edicts. Government officials worked closely with religious scholars who interpreted the law.
'How did religion impact Ottoman society?
Ruled diverse peoples of many religions. The men of the sword and men of the pen were almost all Muslims, but the other classes included non-Muslims. The people were organized into millets, or religious communities. These included Muslims, Greek Christians, Armenian Christians, and Jews. Each millet had its own leaders who were responsible for education and some legal matters. The Jewish millets included many Jews who had been expelled from Spain in 1492. They brought international banking connections with them, plus a new technology for making cloth that helped the empire finance its expansion. There was a "tax" on Christian families in the Balkans, requiring them to turn over their young sons for government service.
The boys were converted to Islam and put into rigorous military training at the palace school. Like the boys, non-Muslim girls from eastern Europe served as slaves in wealthy Muslim households. There, they might be accepted as members of the household. Some of the enslaved girls were freed after the death of their masters.
How did Shah Abbas impact the Safavid Empire?
He revived the glory of ancient Persia. From 1588 to 1629, he centralized the government and created a powerful military force modeled on the Ottoman janizaries. He used a mixture of force and diplomacy against the Ottomans. He also sought alliances with European states that had reason to fear Ottoman power. To strengthen the economy, he reduced taxes on farmers and herders and encouraged the growth of industry. Unlike earlier Safavids, he tolerated non-Muslims and valued their economic contributions. He built a new capital at Isfahan (is fah hahn), which eventually reached a population of one million, with hundreds of mosques, schools, parks, libraries, and public baths.
A Center of Art and Trade Under Shah Abbas, Isfahan flourished. It became a center for the arts and architecture, and the shah welcomed artists, poets, and scholars to his court. Palace workshops produced magnificant paintings, metalwork, textiles, and rugs.
Isfahan also became a center of the international silk trade.
What were the characteristics of an absolute monarchy?
Spain and France were these. The chief characteristic of this political system is that a ruler has complete authority over the government and the lives of the people. They passed power from generation to generation within the family while they added lands to their kingdoms through skillfully arranged marriages.
They often had parliaments or other bodies, but these bodies had no real power. The ruler could dissolve them at will. In theory, they had total power, but in practice, to preserve power, they had to balance the interests of different groups from nobles and clergy to the middle class and peasants.
How did the concept of divine right connect to he concept of Absolutism?
Authority to rule came directly from God. and this theory was used to justify their power. As God's representative on Earth, monarchs could command absolute obedience from their subjects. Jacques Bossuet defended the theory of these two concepts saying that absolute power was necessary to protect the people.
Why did Charles V divide the Hapsburg Empire?
He did this when he entered a monastery from exhaustion leaving the Hapsburg lands in central Europe to his brother Ferdinand, who became Holy Roman emperor. He gave Spain, the Netherlands, some southern Italian states, and Spain's overseas empire to his son Philip, who became Philip II.
Explain why the Spanish Armada fought against England and the outcome of the conflict.
Philip saw England's Queen Elizabeth I as his chief Protestant enemy. First secretly, then openly, Elizabeth had supported the Dutch against Spain. She encouraged English captains, known as sea dogs, to plunder Spanish treasure ships and loot Spanish cities in the Americas. To Philip's dismay, Elizabeth made Francis Drake, the most daring sea dog, a knight instead of punishing him as a pirate. to end English attacks and subdue the Dutch, Philip prepared a huge armada, or fleet, to carry a Spanish invasion force to England In the English Channel, lumbering Spanish ships were outmaneuvered by the lighter, faster English ships. Strong winds favored the English, scattering the Armada. After further disasters at sea, the tattered remnants limped home in defeat.
What caused the decline of the Spanish Empire?
Spanish power slowly faded. The decline was due in part to Philip's successors, who were less able rulers than he.. Economic problems were also to blame. Costly overseas wars drained wealth out of Spain almost as fast as it came in. Treasure from the Americas led Spain to neglect farming and commerce. The government heavily taxed the small middle class, weakening a group that in other European nations supported royal power. The expulsion of Muslims and Jews from Spain deprived the economy of many skilled artisans and merchants. Finally, the influx of American gold and silver led to soaring inflation. As Spain's power dwindled in the 1600s and 1700s, Dutch, English, and French fleets challenged—and eventually surpassed—Spanish power both in Europe and around the world.
How did Henry IV restore order to France?
He converted to Catholicism. but to protect Protestants, however, he issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. It granted the Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms.
He then set out to restore royal power and rebuild a land shattered by war. His goal, he said, was not the victory of one sect over another, but "a chicken in every pot"—a good Sunday dinner for every peasant. Under him, the government reached into every area of French life. Royal officials administered justice, improved roads, built bridges, and revived agriculture. By building the royal bureaucracy and reducing the influence of nobles, he laid the foundations for royal absolutism.
Describe Louis XIV's rule and how he embodied an absolute monarch.
He came to the throne at a young age of 5, ruled France for more than 72 years. He believed in the divine right of kings and was a powerful absolute monarch. He firmly believed in his divine right to rule. He took the sun as the symbol of his absolute power.Hedid not once call a meeting of the Estates General, the medieval assembly made up of representatives of all French social classes, so they played no role in checking royal power. He followed the policies of Richelieu. He expanded the bureaucracy and appointed intendants, royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his policies in the provinces. He appointed wealthy middle-class men to government jobs. In this way, Louis cemented ties with the middle class and limited the influence of nobles. The French army became the strongest in Europe. This highly disciplined army to enforce his policies at home and abroad.
How did Jean-Baptiste Colbert's policies impact France?
The French economy grew to the wealthiest state in Europe under the king's brilliant finance minister. He had new lands cleared for farming, encouraged mining and other basic industries, and built up luxury trades such as lacemaking. To protect French manufacturers, he put high tariffs on imported goods. He fostered overseas colonies, such as New France in North America and several colonies in India. Imposing mercantilist policies, he regulated trade with the colonies to enrich the royal treasury. Yet not even his financial genius could produce enough income to support the huge costs of Louis's court and his many foreign wars.
How did Versailles contribute to Louis XIV's control over France?
In the countryside near Paris,a royal hunting lodge was turned into this immense palace where Louis XIV presided over both his court and the government. It became the perfect symbol of the power of the Sun King. HE spared no expense in making it the most magnificent building in Europe. It was a monument to his power reflecting in its design and gardens royal power over nature. . The king lured nobles there and had turned them into courtiers angling for privileges rather than rival warriors battling for power . His tactic worked because he carefully protected their prestige and continued their privilege of not paying taxes.
What was Louis XIV's legacy?
French culture, manners, and customs set the standard for European tastes. The Sun King made France the strongest state in Europe.
What were the causes and consequences of the Thirty Years War?
The causes were long-term political and religious conflict. In theory, these states were ruled by the Holy Roman emperor, who was chosen by seven leading German princes called electors. In practice, the emperor had little power over the many rival princes. This power vacuum contributed to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War. Religion further divided the German states. The north had become largely Protestant, while the south remained Catholic. Because so many powers had been involved in the conflict, the treaties ended with a general European peace and settled other international problems.
Among the combatants, France emerged a clear winner, gaining territory on both its Spanish and German frontiers. The Hapsburgs were not so fortunate. They had to accept the almost total independence of all the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In addition, the Netherlands and the Swiss Federation (present-day Switzerland) won recognition as independent states. It left German lands divided into more than 360 separate states—"one for every day of the year." These states still acknowledged the rule of the Holy Roman emperor. Yet each state had its own government, currency, church, armed forces, and foreign policy.
Why was the Hapsburg Empire hard to unify?
They never developed a fully centralized governmental system like that of France. Not only were they divided by geography, they included a number of diverse peoples and cultures as well. By the 1700s, it included Germans, Magyars, Slavs, and others. In many parts of the empire, people had their own languages, laws, political assemblies, and customs.
Why did Peter the Great westernize Russia and what reforms did he make?
He studied the Western ways in Moscow and Eurpoean cities the adoption of Western ideas, technology, and culture. He was known not only for cruelty but also for remaking Russia. He imported Western technology, simplified the Russian alphabet, and set up academies for the study of mathematics, science, and engineering. To pay for his reforms, he adopted mercantilist policies, such as encouraging exports. He improved waterways and canals, developed mining and textile manufacturing, and backed new trading companies. Peter succeeded in refashioning Russia from a medieval backwater into a rising European—and Asian—power.
Why did Russia pursue a policy of expansionism?
Peter the Great wanted a warm water port and have a window to the West and expanded for Russia to become the largest country in the world.
What reforms did "Catherine the Great pursue and n what ways was she an absolute monarch?
She embraced Western ideas and worked to bring Russia fully into European cultural and political life. At court, she encouraged French language and customs, wrote histories and plays, and organized performances. She was also a serious student of the French thinkers who led the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.
Like rulers in France and Spain, she was an absolute monarch. Like them, she could be ruthless. She granted a charter to the boyars outlining important rights, such as exemption from taxes. She also allowed them to increase their stranglehold on the peasants. When peasants rebelled against the harsh burdens of serfdom, she harshly suppressed the uprisings. Under her rule, conditions grew even worse for Russian peasants and serfdom continued to spread. she achieved the Russian dream of a warm-water port on the Black Sea. She also took steps to seize territory from neighboring Poland.
How did the five great powers of Europe maintain a balance of power?
Austria, Prussia, France, Britain, and Russia. had strong centralized governments. As these five nation-states competed with one another, they formed various alliances to maintain the balance of power,. New ideas were circulating about natural rights and the role of government. In time, demands for change and reform would topple French absolutism, revolutionize European societies, and transform the balance of power in Europe.