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triplet sequence of nucleotides
the smallest units of uniform length to allow translation of all 20 amino acids
RNA polymerase binds to promotor region, TATA box plays critical role during this
initiation in transcription
helicase unwinds DNA and RNA polymerase adds nucleotides 10 bases long growing 5 to 3 direction
elongation on transcription
three-step cycle that adds amino acids one by one to the initial amino acid, requires cooperation of several
elongation of translation
5'cap attaches to small ribosomal subunit, trna carrying met attaches to mrna codon, large ribosomal subunit attaches
process of initiation in translation
tRNA is directed into the A site by an elongation factor then peptide bond forms between adjacent amino acids
termination sequence is encountered, release factor bonds to sequence, release factor seperates polypeptide and tRNA
assemble nucleic acid chains from monomer nucleotides whos order is determined by complementary base pairing to template strand, synthesize 5 to 3 direction
DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase both
transcription factor would not bind to it, so neither would RNA polymerase
if sequence change occured in tata box
help mRNA leave nucleus, prevent from degredation, facilitate ribosome attachment
5 cap and poly-a tail help
different codons code same amino acid, but same codon cant code for different amino acid
why is genetic code redundant but not ambiguous
in eukaryotic cells, ____ ____ mediate the initiation of transcription by RNA pol 2
DNA sequence in eukaryotic promotors crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex
short nucleotide sequences at end of introns
signal for splicing by snRNPs, then snRNA binds to these sites
allows RNA to base-pair with a complementary region in same molecule giving it a 3-D structure
nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule
scientists expected to find one aminoacyl-tRNA synthase per codon but fewer have been discovered can be explained by the ____ concept
catalyzes the formation of a peptide bond between the new amino acid in the A site and carbozyl end of the growing polypeptide
protein that binds directly to stop codon on A site causing addition of water molecule
attachment of sugar lipid or phosphate groups, remove amino acids from leading end, chain may be cleaved, chains come together
post translational modifications
SRP binds to a ____ in Er membrane which is part of a protein complex that has a membrane pore and signal cleaving enzyme
SRP, signal protein
leaves and pp synthesis resumes with simaltaneous translocation across membrane with ____ ____ remaining attached to translocation complex
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