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Special Seneses

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Special Senses
Smell , taste, sight, and hearing.
Special Sense Receptors
Either large, complex sensory organs or localized clusters of receptors.
Accessory Structures
The eye include the extrinsic muscles, eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus.
Eyelids
Meet the medial and lateral corners of the eye.
Tarsal Glands
Modified sebaceous glands associated with the eyelid edges.
Conjunctiva
Lines the eyelids and covers part of the outer surface of the eyeball.
Conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the conjunctiva.
Pinkeye
Infectious form caused by bacteria or viruses, is highly contagious.
Lacrimal Apparatus
consists of the lacrimal gland and a number of ducts that drain the lacrimal secretions into the nasal cavity.
Lacrimal Gland
Located above the lateral end of each eye.
Nasolacrimal Duct
Empties into the nasal cavity.
Lysozyme
An enzyme that destroys bacteria.
Extrinsic Eye Muscle
Attached to the outer surface of each eye.
Eyeball
A hollow sphere that is composed of three layers.
Fibrous Layer
Outer most layer, consists of the protective sclera and transparent cornea.
Sclera
Thick, glistening white connective tissue, is seen anteriorly as the "white of the eye."
Cornea
Well supplied of nerve endings, most exposed part of the eye, and it is very vulnerable to damage.
Vascular Layer
The middle layer of the eyeball, has three distinguishable regions.
Choroid
Most posterior in the vascular layer, is a blood rich nutritive tunic that contains a dark pigment.
Ciliary Body
Moving anteriorly, the choroid is modified to form two smooth muscle structures.
Ciliary Zonule
The lens is attached by a suspensory ligament.
Iris
Responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil.
Pupil
Light passes through it .
Sensory Layer
The delicate two layered retina.
Retina
Extends anteriorly only to the ciliary body.
Pigmented Layer
Composed of pigmented cells that, like those of the choroid, absorb light and prevent light from scattering inside they eye.
Neural Layer
Contains millions of receptor cells.
Rods
Allow us to see in grey tones and dim light, and they provide for our peripheral vision.
Night Blindness
Anything that interferes with rod function hinders our ability to see at night.
Cones
Allow us to see the details of our world in color under bright light conditions.
Optic Nerve
Nerve impulses that are transmitted to the optic cortex.
Photoreceptors
The transparent inner neural layer of the retina contains millions of receptor cells, the rods and cones,
Optic Disk/ Blind Spot
The site where the optic nerve leaves leaves the eyeball.
Fovea Centralis
A tiny pit that contains only cones.
Visual Acuity
Point of sharp vision, and anything we wish to view critically is focused on the fovea centralis.
Color Blindness
Whereas lack of one cone type leads to partial color blindness.
Lens
Light entering the eye is focused on the retina.
Cataracts
Cause vision to become hazy and distorted, and they eventually cause blindness to affect they eye.
Aqueous Humor
A clear watery fluid.
Glaucoma
Pressure withing the eye may increase to dangerous levels and compress the delicate retina and optic nerve.
Fundus
Vessels at the posterior wall of the eye to be viewed and examined.
Refracted
When light passes from one substance to another substance that has a different density, its speed changes and its rays are bent.
Accomodation
This ability of the eye to focus specifically for close objects.
Optic Chiasma
The fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side of the brain.
Optic Tracts
The fiber tracts that result .
Hemianopia
Loss of same side of the visual field of both eyes, which results from damage to the visual cortex on one side only.
Convergence
The reflexive movement of the eye medially when we view close objects.
Binocular Vision
"Two-eyed vision" provides for depth perception. Our visual cortex fuses the two slightly different images delivered by the two eyes.
Myopia
Nearsightedness.
Hyperopia
Farsightedness.
Astigmatism
Unequal curvatures in different parts of the cornea or lens.
Photopupillary Reflex
When the eyes are suddenly exposed to bright light, the pupils immediately constrict.
Mechanoreceptors
Receptors that respond to such physical forces.
External Acoustic Meatus
A short, narrow chamber carved into the temporal bone of the skull.
Auricle/ Pinna
The shell-shaped structure surrounding the auditory canal opening.
Ceruminous Gland
The skin-lined walls of the skull which secret a waxy yellow.
Cerumen/ Earwax
Provides a sticky trap for foreign bodies and repels insects.
Tympanic Membrane/ Eardrum
Sound waves entering the auditory canal, cause the eardrum to vibrate.
Middle Ear/ Tympanic Cavity
Small air-filled, mucosa-lined cavity within the temporal bone.
Oval Window
Flanked literally by the eardrum and medially by a bony wall with two openings.
Pharyngotympanic Tube/ Auditory
Runs obliquely downward to link the middle ear cavity with the throat, and the mucosae lining the two regions are continuous.
Otitis Media
Inflammation of the middle ear.
Ossicles
Transmit the vibratory motion of the eardrum to the fluids of the inner ear.
Hammer/ Malleus
Transfers the vibration to the anvil.
Anvil/ Incus
Passes the vibration on to the stirrup
Stirrup/ Stapes
Presses on the oval window of the inner ear.
Osseous/ Bony Labyrinth
Located deep within the temporal bone behind the eye socket.
Vestibule
Situated between the semicircular canals and the cochlea.
Perilymph
A plasmalike fluid that fills the bony labyrinth.
Membranous Labyrinth
A system of membrane sacs that more or less follows the shape of the bony labyrinth.
Endolymph
The membranous labyrinth itself contains a thicker fluid.
Vestibular Apparatus
The equilibrium receptors of the inner ear.
Maculae
Within the membrane sacs of the vestibule are receptors.
Otolithic Hair Membrane
A jellylike mass studded with otoliths.
Otoliths
Tiny stones made of calcium salts.
Concave Lens
Lens that possesses at least one surface that curves inwards.
Convex Lens
Converge the light rays before they enter the eye.
Cochlea
The spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.
Semicircular Canals
Three fluid-filled bony channels in the inner ear. They are situated at right angles to each other and provide information about orientation to the brain to help maintain balance.
Static Equilibrium
A form of equilibrium that occurs when an object is at rest. Static refers to the object being motionless while equilibrium refers to the object either having no net forces acting upon it or having all of its net forces balanced.
Vestibular Nerve
Stimulates the hair cells, and impulses are transmitted up the vestibular nerve to the cerebellum.
Dynamic Equilibrium
Found in the semicircular canals, respond to angular or rotatory movements of the head rather than to straight-line movements.
Crista Ampullaris
A swollen region at the base of each membranous semicircular canal.
Cupula
Tuft of hair cells covered with a gelatinous cup.
Cochlear Duct
The endolymph-containing membranous labyrinth of the cochlea.
Hair Cells
Containing the hearing receptors.
Cochlear Nerve
The hair cells transmit impulses to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe.
Deafness
Hearing loss of any degree.
Conduction Deafness
Something interferes with the conduction of sound vibrations to the fluids of the inner ear.
Ototsclerosis
Fusion of the ossicles.
Sensorineural Deafness
Degeneration or damage to the receptor cells in the spiral organ of corti.
Meniere's Syndrome
Progressive deafness occurs, Exact cause is unknown.
Vertigo
A sensation of spinning, it is so severe that they cannot stand without discomfort.
Chemoreceptors
The receptors for taste and olfaction, they respond to chemical solutions.
Olfactory Receptors
Receptors for the sense of smell, occupy a postage stamp-sized area in the roof of each nasal cavity.
Olfactory Receptor Cells
Neurons equipped with olfactory hairs.
Olfactory Hairs
Long cilia that protrude from the nasal epithelium and are continuously bathed by a layer of mucus.
Olfactory Filaments
Bundled axons of olfactory neurons that collectively make up the olfactory nerve.
Olfactory Nerve
Conducts impulses to the olfactory cortex of the brain.
Anosmias
Loss of chemical senses have olfactory disorders.
Olfactory Auras
Olfactory hallucinations
Taste Buds
Specific receptors for the sense of taste.
Papillae
Small peglike projections.
Gustatory Cells
The specific cells that respond to chemicals dissolved in the saliva.
Gustatory Hairs
Long microvilli.
Basal Cells
Stem cells.
Umami
Delicious.
Strabismus
Crossed eyes.
Ophthalmia Neonatorum
Conjunctivitis.
Presbyopia
Old vision.
Presbycusis
Sensorineural deafness.
Ototscerosis
The ear ossicles fuse.
Fungiform Papillae
Papillae on the upper surface of the tongue.
Taste Pore
Opening of a taste bud on the surface of the oral mucosa.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Each of the ninth of cranial nerves, supplying the tongue and pharynx.
Vagus Nerve
Each of the tenth pair of cranial nerves, supplying the heart, lungs, upper digestive tract, and other organs of the chest and abdomen.