27 terms

Neurons + neurotransmitters (nerves system)

perspective on psychology that emphasizes the study of the brain and its effects on behavior
the basic cell that makes up the nerves system, and that receives and sends messages within the system.
branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell.
glial cell
non-neural cells, holds neurons in place, provide nutriends, gather and package waste
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
resting potential
the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse
action potential
the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
referring to the fact that a neuron either fires or does not fire at all
Axon Terminal
branches at the end of the axon
synaptic knob
rounded areas on the end of the axon terminal
chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell.
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
receptor sites
holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
excitatory Synapse
synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire
inhibitory synapse
synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing
chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell
chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters
process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
involved in sleep, mood, and appetite
major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory formation, and nerves system formation
mainly excitatory neurotransmitter involved in arousal and mood
excitatory or inhibitor involved in control of movement and sensation of pleasure
inhibitory neural regulator involved in pain relief