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27 terms

Neurons + neurotransmitters (nerves system)

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Neuroscience
perspective on psychology that emphasizes the study of the brain and its effects on behavior
Neuron
the basic cell that makes up the nerves system, and that receives and sends messages within the system.
dendrites
branching extensions of neuron that receives messages from neighboring neurons
Soma
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell.
glial cell
non-neural cells, holds neurons in place, provide nutriends, gather and package waste
myelin
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
Nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
resting potential
the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse
action potential
the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
All-or-none
referring to the fact that a neuron either fires or does not fire at all
Axon Terminal
branches at the end of the axon
synaptic knob
rounded areas on the end of the axon terminal
neurotransmitter
chemicals found in the synaptic vesicles that when released has an effect on the next cell.
synapse
the junction between two neurons (axon-to-dendrite) or between a neuron and a muscle
receptor sites
holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
excitatory Synapse
synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire
inhibitory synapse
synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing
agonists
chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell
antagonists
chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters
Reuptake
process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.
Acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
serotonin
a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
involved in sleep, mood, and appetite
Glutamate
major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory formation, and nerves system formation
norepinephrine
mainly excitatory neurotransmitter involved in arousal and mood
dopamine
excitatory or inhibitor involved in control of movement and sensation of pleasure
endorphins
inhibitory neural regulator involved in pain relief