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918 terms

AP Human Geography ALL TERMS

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Human geography
a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface
Physical geography
the study of physical features of the earth's surface
Absolute location
The exact position of a place on the earth's surface.
Relative location
the location of something in relation to something else
Spatial perspective
they way geographers look at everything-- in relation to space
Map
a 2D model of the earth or a portion of its surface
Mental map
A map which represents the perceptions and knowledge a person has of an area
Distribution
the frequency or occurrence of something
Pattern
a consistent or characteristic arrangement
Formal region
a region marked by uniformity
Functional (nodal) region
a group of places linked together by some function's influence on them
Perceptual (vernacular) region
a region defined by people's beliefs
Remote sensing
technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed
Geographic Information Systems
a computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show those data
Diffusion
the spread of a culture element or some other phenomena
Expansion diffusion
a form of diffusion in which the cultural component spreads outward to new places while remaining strong in its original hearth
Relocation diffusion
a form of diffusion that involves the actual movement of the original adopters from their point of origin to a new place
Acculturation
occurs when the "weaker" of two cultures adopts traits from the more dominant culture
Assimilation
in cultural convergence, this occurs when the original traits of the weaker culuter are completely erased and replaced by the traits of the more dominant culture
Transculturation
occurs when two cultures of just about equal power or influence meet and exchange ideas or traits without the domination seen in acculturation and assimilation
Contagious diffusion
a form of expansion diffusion in which numerous places or people near the point of origin become adopters
Hierarchical diffusion
occurs when the diffusion innovation or concept spreads from a place or person of power or high susceptibility to another ina leveled pattern
Independent invention
in which many hearths invent similar innovations without knowing about each other
Environmental determinism
the idea that human behavior is controlled by the physical environment
Possibilism
the idea that the natural environment places limits on the set of choices available to people
Culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of society
Cultural diffusion
the spread of culture
Cultural landscape
tangible result of a human group's interaction with its environment
Culture hearth
area where innovations in culture began and from which such cultural elements spread
Culture trait
a single piece of a culture's traditions and practices
Culture complex
a unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group
Culture realm
A cluster of regions in which related culture systems prevail.
Culture region
A region within which common culture charecteristics prevail
Culture system
collection of culture complexes that shaper a group's common identity
Sequent occupance
theory that a place is occupied by different groups of people, each group leaving an imprint on the place from which the next group learns
Folk culture
isolated group that has had long-lasting culture traits that have not changed substantially over time
Popular culture
mass culture that diffuses rapidly
Commodification
the process though which something is given monetary value
Stimulus diffusion
expansion diffusion in which the innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters
adaptive strategies
the unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment
architectural form
the look of housing, effected by the available materials, the environment the house is in, and the popular culture of the time
authenticity
the truthfulness of origins, attributions, commitments, sincerity, devotion, and intentions; the quality of being authentic
cultural appropriation
the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit
folk culture
cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
folk ways
any informal norms, virtues, or values characterized by being followed through imitation and mild social pressure but not strictly enforced or put into law
folklore
consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, and customs that are the traditions of that culture, subculture, or group
maladapted diffusion
diffusion in which image takes precedence over practicality
material culture
the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
non material culture
the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values , of a group of people
placelessness
the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
popular culture
cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced, western societies
survey systems
systems that are used to collect data
traditional architecture
traditional building styles of different cultures, religions, and places
vernacular
the commonly spoken language or dialect of a particular people or place
acculturation
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous first-hand contact
adaptation
adjusting to a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
assimilation
the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech, particularities, or mannerisms when they come into contact with another society or culture
cultural convergence
contact and interaction of one culture and another
cultural divergence
the separation of cultures through less and less contact and interaction between them; restriction of a culture from outside influences
cultural integration
the process of combining cultures together into one
core / periphery / semi-periphery
the core-periphery idea that the core houses the main economic power of the region and the outlying region and that the periphery houses the lesser economic ties with the semi-periphery in-between the two
cultural identity
the way people categorize their culture, sometimes by the way they dress and what they eat
cultural realm
the entire region that displays the characteristics of a culture
cultural regions
a portion of earth's surface occupied by a population sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
global-local continuum
the notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice-versa
glocalization
the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
innovation adoption
the diffusion of new ideas
bario / favala
a shantytown in or near a city; slum area
cultural adaptation
adjusting to a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
cultural shatter belt
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
ethnic cleansing
the systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation
ethnic conflict
a struggle that happened because of ethnicities interacting
ethnic conclave
a gathering of an ethnic group
ethnic group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
ethnic homeland
a sizable area inhabited by an ethnic majority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region
ethnic neighborhood
a neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
ethnicity
affiliation or identity within a group of people bound by common ancestry and culture
ethnocentrism
conviction of the evident superiority of one's own ethnic group
ghetto
a forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious minority
plural society
a society that contains various cultural groups
race
a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics
segregation
a measure of the degree to which members of a minority group are non-uniformly distributed among the total population
creole
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue
dialect
local or regional characteristics of a language
indo-european language
a family of several hundred related languages and dialects
isogloss
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
language family
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
language group
set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
lingua franca
a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce
linguistic diversity
the amount of variation of languages a place has
monolingual
only one language spoken
multilingual
more than one language spoken
official language
in multilingual countries the language selected to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
pidgin
when two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
proto language
an assumed, reconstructed, or recorded ancestral language
toponymy
the study of place names of a region, or toponyms
dowry death
in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some cases, lead to the death of the bride
enfranchisement
to admit to citizenship; the rite of voting
gender
social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes
gender gap
a measurable difference between the behaviors of men and women
infanticide
the murder of infants
longevity gap
the difference of average expected life spans between different groups of people, nations, races, etc.
maternal mortality rate
annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births
animism
the belief that inanimate objects, such as trees, rocks, and rivers, posses souls
buddhism
religion; belief that enlightenment will come through knowledge, especially self knowledge, elimination of greed, craving, and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal
christianity
religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
confucianism
a philosophy of ethnics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius
ethnic religion
a religion that is particular to one culturally distinct group of people
exclave
a territory legally or politically attached to another territory with which is not physically contiguous
enclave
a territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory
fundamentalism
the interpretation of every word in the sacred text as literal truth
geomancy (feng shui)
the Chinese art and science of the placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities
hajj
the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad
hinduism
religion; unique in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
interfaith boundaries
boundaries between the world's major faiths
islam
religion; based on the teachings of Muhammad
juinism
an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living things
judaism
religion; roots in the teachings of Abraham, who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god
landscapes of the dead
landscapes such as cemeteries that are only there because of the dead
monotheism
the belief in a single god
polytheism
belief in multiple gods
mormonism
comprises the religious, institutional, and cultural elements of the most populace branch of the Latte Day Saint movement
muslim pilgrimage
hajj
proselytic religion
a universalizing religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just those of one culture or location
reincarnation
the idea that after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human
religious fundamentalism
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
religious extremism
religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence
religious toponyms
the origin and meaning of the names of religions
sacred space
place or space people infuse with religious meaning
shamanism
community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman
secularism
the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on earth not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife
sharia law
the system of Islamic law, based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu'ran
shintoism
religion; located in japan and related to Buddhism; focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship
sikhism
religion; began in northern Inda; the principal belief is that faith in Vahiguru emphasizes faith in god
sunni
branch of Islam; orthodox/traditionalist; believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems; accept traditions of Muhammad as authoritative
shia (shi'ite)
branch of Islam; Persian variation; believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali
syncretism
the development of a new form of culture trait by the fusion of two or more distinct parental elements
taoism
religion; based upon Tao-te-ching, a book by Lao-Tsu which focuses on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature
theocracy
a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders
universalizing
belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope
zoroastranism
religion; based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster; founded in the eartly part of the 5th century BCE
Pandemic
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Population pyramid
shows percentage of population in 5-year age groups, with the youngest group at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top. The length of the bar represents the percentage of the total population in that group. Males are usually on the left and females on the right
Sex ratio
The number of males per 100 females in the population.
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Medical Revolution
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
Overpopulation
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Census
an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals
Crude Birth Rate
the total number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population
Crude Death Rate
The total number of deaths yearly per 1,000 people in the population
Demography
the scientific study of population characteristics
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
Demographic Momentum
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Baby Boom
A sudden increase in the birth rate of a population
Age Distribution
a model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 (non-working), compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Doubling Time
the time required for a population to double in size assuming constant rate
Epidemiological Transition Model
The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.
Epidemiology
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Underpopulation
circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants.
J-Curve
This is when the projection population shows exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and services.
Population Distribution
Variation of population density over a particular geographic area. For example, a country has a high population density in its urban areas and a much lower population density in rural areas.
Demographic Regions
Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in. Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Natality
the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area
Crude Density
the number of people per unit area of land
Population Explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century
S-Curve
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an "S." The leveling off of a J-Curve exponential growth.
Brain Drain
Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Disease Diffusion
There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people. This is important in determining how the disease spread so you can predict how it will spread.
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
Geodemographic analysis
practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations.
Standard of Living
a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone
Maladaptation
This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. Which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it
Distance Decay
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
Zero Population Growth
when the birth rate equals the death rate
Demographic Equation
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
Sustainability
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs; the 3 components of sustainability are economy, environment, and society (culture)
Infant Mortality Rate
a figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population
Gravity model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Intervening Opportunity
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
Push-Pull Factors
Conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region (push factors)
Carrying Capacity
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Mortality
the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Population Densities
Number of people living in an area per a unit of measurement.
Natural Decrease Rate
The result of death rates being higher than birth rates
Personal Space
how people distance themselves from one another
Transmigration
the government-required relocation of people away from overpopulated core regions to less crowded areas. (Indonesia has a policy of moving people away from Java.)
Population Policy
an official government strategy designed to affect any or all of several objectives including the size, composition, and distribution of population
Voluntary Migration
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
Forced Migration
Human migration flows in which the movers have no choice but to relocate.
Refugees
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Chain Migration
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Internal Migration
Migration within a country
Migration patterns
patterns of movement; Intercontinental- over countries' borders, Interregional- within a region or certain area, Rural-Urban- from a rural area to an urban area (farm to a city)
Guest Workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Undocumented Immigrants
immigrants who come into a country without the government's permission
Immigration
moving into a population
Emigration
Leaving a population
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (food) (1766-1834)
Neo-Malthusian
A belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for too few resources. Named for Thomas Malthus, who predicted a dismal cycle of misery, vice, and starvation as a result of human overpopulation
multinational corporation (MNC)
A large business organization operating in a number of different national economies; the term implies a more extensive form of transnational corporation.
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
outsourcing: 1
Producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale
outsourcing: 2
Subcontracting production or services rather than performing those activities "in house."
primary activities
Those parts of the economy involved in making natural resources available for use or further processing; included are mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and grazing.
profit maximization
A method of setting prices that occurs when marginal revenue equals marginal cost.
quaternary activities
Those parts of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration - including administration of the other economic activity levels; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities.
quinary activities
A sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations. Also deemed the most advanced form of the quaternary subsector.
satisficing location
A less-than-ideal best location, but one providing an acceptable level of utility or satisfaction.
secondary activities
Those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; included are manufacturing, construction, and power generation.
short-haul penalty
When using a shorter haul distance is more expensive that one long haul distance.
spatial margin of profitability
The set of points delimiting the area within which a firm's profitable operation is possible.
spatially fixed cost
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located.
spatially variable cost
An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its amount and its relative share of total costs.
substitution principle
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location.
supply curve
A curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.
terminal costs
(syn: fixed costs of transportation) The costs incurred, and charged, for loading and unloading freight at origin and destination points and for the paperwork involved; costs charged each shipment for terminal facility use and unrelated to distance of movement of line-haul costs.
tertiary activities
Those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and that bring together consumers and providers of services; included are wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services, and personal and professional services of all kinds.
transfer of technology
The process of skill transferring, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing.
transnational corporation (TNC)
A large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies; a form of multinational corporation.
ubiquitous industry
A market-oriented industry whose establishments are distributed in direct proportion to the distribution of population.
uniform (isotropic) plain
A hypothetical portion of the earth's surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like.
variable costs of transportation
[syn: line-haul costs (syn: over-the-road costs) The costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs.
vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution.
weight gaining
When a product undergoes the gain of net weight by combining several things together to create a larger product.
weight reduction
When a product undergoes the loss of net weight by removal of the original materials.
agglomeration
The spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefit; in economic geography, the concentration of productive enterprises for collective of cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources and market access.
agglomeration economies
(syn. external economies) The savings to an individual enterprise derived for locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores.
break-of-bulk point
A location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another (e.g., from barge to railroad).
comparative advantage
The principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage of advantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists.
conglomerate corporations
Companies that have diversified into various economic activities usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions.
deglomeration
The process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation.
deindustrialization
The cumulative and sustained decline in the contribution of manufacturing to a national economy.
demand curve
A graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded.
economies of scale
Factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises.
fixed cost
An activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant.
footloose
A descriptive term applied to manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting material or product in not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation.
Fordism
The manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass consumption of standardized goods. Named after Henry Ford, who innovated many of its production techniques.
freight rates
The charge levied by a transporter for the loading, moving, and unloading of goods; includes line-haul costs and terminal costs.
friction of distance
A measure of the retarding or restraining effect of distance on spatial interaction. Generally, the greater the distance, the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
high-tech industry
The use of advanced scientific ideas and special skills and tools to meet people's needs.
inelastic demand
A situation in which an increase or a decrease in price will not significantly affect demand for the product
Industrial Revolution
The term applied to the rapid economic and social changes in agriculture and manufacturing that followed the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry of England in the last quarter of the 18th century.
isotropic plain
A hypothetical portion of the earths surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like.
just-in-time production
Process that redefines and simplifies manufacturing by reducing inventory levels and delivering raw materials just when they are needed on the production line
labor intensive
Type of industry in which labor cost is a high percentage of expense.
least-cost theory (Weber)
(syn. Weberian analysis) The view that the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable.
line-haul costs
(syn. over-the-road costs) The costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs.
location theory
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
locational interdependence (Hotelling)
The circumstance under which the locational decision of a particular firm is influenced by the locations chosen by competitors.
locational triangle
A simple graphic model in Weberian analysis to illustrate the derivation of the least-transport-cost location of an industrial establishment.
market equilibrium
The point of intersection of demand and supply curves of a given commodity; at equilibrium the market is cleared of the commodity.
market orientation
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
Maquiladora
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
material orientation
The tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material; this is experienced when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs.
multiplier effect
The direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity.
multiplier effect: industrial agglomerations
In industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (such as a new plant opening) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and industrial growth.
multiplier effect: urban geography
In urban geography, the expected addition of nonbasic workers and dependents to a city's total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment.
acid rain
precipitation that is unusually acidic; created when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen change chemically as they dissolve in water vapor in the atmosphere and return to earth as acidic rain, snow, or fog
aquifer
a porous, water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel below ground level
biome
a major ecological community, including plants and animals, occupying an extensive earth area
biosphere
(syn ecosphere) the thin film of air, water, and earth within which we love, including the atmosphere, surrounding and subsurface waters, and the upper reaches of the earth's crust
desertification
extension of desertlike landscapes as a result of overgrazing, destruction of the forests, or other human-induced changes, usually in semiarid regions
ecosystem
a population of organisms existing together in a small, relatively homogeneous area (pond, forest, small island) together with the energy, air, water, soil, and chemicals upon which it depends
environment
surroundings; the totality of things that in any way may affect an organism, including both physical and cultural conditions; a region characterized by a certain set of physical conditions
environmental pollution
the introduction into the biosphere of materials that because of their quantity, chemical nature, or temperature have a negative impact on the ecosystem or that cannot be readily disposed of by natural recycling processes
fallowing
the practice of allowing plowed or cultivated land to remain uncropped or only partially cropped for one or more growing seasons
greenhouse effect
heating of the earth's surface as shortwave solar energy passes through the atmosphere, which is transparent to it but opaque to reradiated long-wave terrestrial energy; also, increasing the opacity of the atmosphere through the addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases that trap heat
hazardous waste
discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material that poses a substantial threat to human health or to the environment when improperly disposed of or stored
hydrologic cycle
the natural system by which water is continuously circulated through the biosphere by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
icebox effect
the tendency for certain kinds of air pollutants to lower temperatures on earth by reflecting incoming sunlight back into space and thus preventing it from reaching (and heating) the earth
limiting factor principle
the distribution of an organism or the structure of an ecosystem can be explained by the control exerted by the single factor (such as temperature, light, water) that is most deficient, that is, that falls below the levels required
ozone
a gas molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen formed when diatomic oxygen is exposed to UV radiation. In the upper atmosphere it forms a normally continuous, thin layer that blocks UV light; in the lower atmosphere it constitutes a damaging component of photochemical smog
crop rotation
the annual alteration of crops that make differential demands on or contributions to soil fertility
soil
the complex mixture of loose material including minerals, organic and inorganic compounds, living organisms, air, and water found at teh earth's surface and capable of supporting plant life
soil erosion
the wearing away and removal of rock and soil particles from exposed surfaces by agents such as moving water, wind, or ice
terracing
the practice of planting crops on steep slopes that have been converted into a series of horizontal steplike level plots
toxic waste
discarded chemical substances that can cause serous illness or death
antecedent boundary
a boundary line established before the area in question is well populated
artificial boundary
(syn geometric boundary) a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude
autonomous nationalism
movement by a dissident minority intent to achieve partial or total independence of territory it occupies from the state within which it lies
centrifugal force
1. economic and social forces pushing households and businesses outward from central and inner-city locations OR 2. forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state
centripetal force
1. a force attracting establishments or activities to the city center OR 2. forces tending to bind together the citizens of a state
compact state
a state whose territory is nearly circular
consequent boundary
(syn ethnographic boundary) a boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
containment
a guiding principle of US foreign policy during the Cold War period; to prevent or restrict the expansion of the Soviet Union's influence or control beyond its then existing limits
core area
(1) the national or world districts of concentrated economic power, wealth, innovation, and advanced technology
(2) the heartland or nucleus of a state, containing its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity
devolution
the transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory
domino theory
a geopolitics theory made part of American containment (of the former Soviet Union) policy beginning in the 1950s. The theory maintained that if a single country fell under Soviet influence or control, its neighbors would likely follow, creating a ripple effect like a line of toppling dominos
electoral geography
the study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections
elongated state
a state whose territory is long and narrow
enclave
a small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
European Union (EU)
(syn Common Market) an economic association established in 1957 by a number of Western European countries to promote free trade among its members
exclave
a portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
as established in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
fragmented state
a state whose territory contains isolated parts, separated and discontinuous
functional dispute
(syn boundary dispute) a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration
geometric boundary
(syn artificial boundary) a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude
geopolitics
branch of political geography treating national power, foreign policy, and international relations as influenced by geographic considerations of location, space, resources, and demography
gerrymandering
to redraw voting district boundaries in such a way as to give one political party maximum electoral advantage and to reduce that of another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to achieve other nondemocratic objectives
heartland theory
the belief of Halford Mackinder that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely base for world conquest
irrendentism
the policy of a state wising to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
nation
a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs
nationalism
a sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interest of a particular country or nation; an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals
nation-state
a state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation
natural boundary
(syn physical boundary) a boundary line based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains or rivers
perforated state
a state whose territory is interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders
physical boundary
(syn natural boundary) a boundary line based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains or rivers
political geography
a branch of human geography concerned with the spatial analysis of political phenomena
positional dispute
(syn boundary dispute) disagreement about the actual location of a boundary
prorupt state
a state of basically compact form but with one or more narrow extensions of territory
regionalism
group, frequently ethnic group, identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
relic boundary
a former boundary line that is still discernible and marked by some cultural landscape features
resource dispute
disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds
rimland theory
the belief of Nicholas Spykman that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base for world conquest
ethnic separatism
desired regional autonomy expressed by a culturally distinctive group within a larger, politically dominant culture
state
(syn country) an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs
subsequent boundary
a boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that considers the cultural characteristics of the bounded area
superimposed boundary
a boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern
supranationalism
term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives
territorial dispute
(syn boundary dispute, functional dispute) disagreement between states over the control of surface area
terrorism
systematic open and covert action employing fear and terror as a means of political coercion
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
a code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide exclusive economic zones
basic sector
those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community
central business district (CBD)
the nucleus or "downtown" of a city, where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated, mass transit systems converge, and land values and building densities are high
central city
that part of the metropolitan area contained within the boundaries of the main city around which suburbs have developed
central place
an urban or other settlement node whose primary function is to porovide goods and services to the consuming population of its hinterland, complementary region, or trade area
central place theory
a deductive theory formulated by Christaller to explain the size and distribution of settlements through reference to competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed rural populations
Christaller, Walter
German geographer credited with development central place theory
city
a multifunctional nucleated settlement with a CBD and both residential and nonresidential land uses
concentric zone model
(syn zonal model) a model describing urban land uses as a series of circular belts or rings around a core CBD, each ring housing a distinct type of land use
conurbation
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
economic base
the manufacturing and service activities performed by the basic sector of a city's labor force; functions of a city performed to satisfy demands external to the city itself and, in that performance, earning income to support the urban population
edge city
distinct sizable nodal concentration of retail and office space of lower than central city densities and situated on the outer fringes of older metropolitan areas; usually localized by or near major highway intersections
gated community
a restricted access subdivision or neighborhood, often surrounded by a barrier, with entry permitted only for residents and their guests; usually totally planned in land use and design, with "residents only" limitations on public streets and parjs
gentrification
the movement into the inner portions of American cities of middle- and upper-income people who replace low-income populations, rehabilitate the structures they occupied, and change the social character of neighborhoods
metropolitan area
in the US, a large functionally integrated settlement area compromising one or more whole county units and usually containing several urbanized areas; discontinuously built up, it operates as a coherent economic while
multiple-nuclei model
the postulate that large cities develop by peripheral spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth, each of specialized use. The separately expanding use districts eventually coaliesce at their margins
multiplier effect
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity; in urban geography, the expected addition of nonbasic workers and dependents to a city's total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment
network cities
two or more nearby cities, potentially or actually complementary in function, that cooperate by developing transportation links and communications infrastructure joining them
nonbasic sector
(service sector) those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no "export" implication
primate city
a country's leading city, disproportionately larger and functionally more complex than any other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed of a base of small towns and an absence of intermediate-sized cities
rank-size rule
an observed regularity in the city-size distribution of some country. In a rank-size hierarchy, the population of any given town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy; the nth-ranked city will be 1/n the size of the largest city
sector model
a description of urban land uses as wedge-shaped sectors radiating outward from the CBD along transportation corridors. The radial access routes attract particular uses to certain sectors, with high-status residential uses occupying the most desirable wedges
service sector
(syn nonbasic sector) those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no "export" implication
suburb
a functionally specialized segment of a large urban complex located outside the boundaries of the central city; usually, a relatively homogeneous residential community, separately incorporated and administered
town
a nucleated settlement that contains a CBD but that is small and less functionally complex than a city
urban hierarchy
a ranking of cities based on their size and functional complexity
urban influence zone
an area outside of a city that is nevertheless affected by the city
urbanized area
a continuously built-up urban landscape defined by building and population densities with no reference to the political boundaries of the city; it may contain a central city and many contiguous towns, suburbs, and unincorporated areas
world city
one of a small number of interconnected,internationally dominant centers (eg London, NY) that together control the global systems of finance and commerce
agglomeration
the spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefits; the concentration of productive enterprises for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources and market access
agglomeration economics
external economics : the savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as factories or retail stores
break-of-bulk point
a location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another eg barge to railroad
comparative advantage
the principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trades exists
deglomeration
the process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation
fixed cost
an activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant
footloose firm
a firm with manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting activities or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation
Fordism
the manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass production and the mass consumption of standardized goods. Named after Henry Ford.
foreign direct investment
the purchase or construction of foreign factories and other fixed assets by transnational corporations; also purchase of or merging with foreign companies
freight rates
the charge levied by a transported for the loading, moving, and unloading of goods. Includes line-haul costs and terminal costs
infrastructure
the basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, and other economic development; included are transport and communications, along with water, power, and other public utilities
in-transit privilege
the application of a single-haul freight rate from origin to destination even though the shipment is halted for processing en route, after which the journey is completed
least-cost theory
(synonym Weberian analysis) the view that the optimum location ofa manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable
line-haul costs
(syn over-the-road costs) the costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs
locational interdependence
the circumstance under which the locational decision of a particular firm is influenced by the locations chosen by competitors
market equilibrium
the point of intersection of demand and supply curves of a given commodity; at equilibrium the market is cleared of the commodity
market orientation
the tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs
material orientation
the tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material; happens when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs
multiplier effect
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity eg in industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (new plant openings) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and infrasctructure growth
offshoring
the relocation of business processes and services to a lower-cost foreign location particularly white-collar, technical, professional, and clerical services
outsourcing
Either 1 producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale OR 2. subcontracting production or services rather than performing those activities "in house"
quarternary activities
those parts of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities
quinary activities
a sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations; also most advanced form of the quaternary subsector
satisficing location
a less-than-ideal best location, but one providing an acceptable level of utility or satisfaction
secondary activities
those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; included are manufacturing, construction, and power generation
spatially fixed costs
an input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located
spatially variable costs
an input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its amount and its relative share of total costs
spatial margin of profitability
the set of points delimiting the area within which a firm's profitable operation is possible
substitution principle
in industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location
terminal costs
(syn fixed costs of transportation) the costs incurred, and charged, for loading and unloading freight at origin and destination points and for the paperwork involved; costs charged each shipment for terminal facility use and unrelated to distnace of movement or line-haul costs
tertiary activities
those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and the bring together consumers and providers of services (eg wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services)
transnational corporation (TNC)
(syn multinational corporation) a large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies
ubiquitous industry
a market-oriented industry whose establishments are distributed in direct proportion of population
uniform plain
(syn isotropic plain) a hypothetical portion of the earth's surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like
Weberian analysis
(syn. least-cost theory) the view that the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable
agriculture
the science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of stock
aquaculture
production and harvesting of fish and shellfish in land-based ponds
Boserup thesis
the view that population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive and intensive subsistence agriculture
commercial economy
a system of production of goods and services for exchange in competitive markets where price and availability are determined by supply and demand
economic geography
the branch of systematic geography concerned with how people support themselves, with the spatial patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the areal variation of economic variation of economic activities over the surface of the earth
extensive agriculture
a crop or livestock system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit area of land. May be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy
extractive industry
primary activities involving the mining and quarrying of nonrenewable metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources
gathering industry
primary activities involving the subsistence or commercial harvesting of renewable natural resources of land or water. Primitive gathering involves local collection of food and other materials of nature, both plant and animal; commercial gathering usually implies forestry and fishing industries
Green Revolution
a term suggesting the great increases in food production, primarily in subtropical areas, accomplished through the introduction of very high-yielding grain crops, particularly wheat, maize, and rice
intensive agriculture
any agricultural system involving the application of large amounts of capital and/or labor per unit of cultivated land; may be part of either subsistence or commercial economy
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum rate at which a renewable resource can be exploited without impairing its ability to be renewed or replenished
natural resource
a physically occurring item that a population perceives to be necessary and useful to its maintenance and well-being; also resource
nomadic herding
migratory but controlled movement of livestock solely dependent on natural forage
nonrenewable resource
a natural resource that is not replenished or replaced by natural processes or is used at a rate that exceeds its replacement rate
planned economy
a system of production of goods and services, usually consumed or distributed by a governmental agency, in quantities, at prices, and in locations determined by governmental program
plantation
a large agricultural holding, frequently foreign owned, devoted to the production of a single export crop
primary activity
the part of an economy involved in making natural resources available for use or further processing; includes mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, grazing
quaternary activity
the part of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities
quinary activity
a sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations. The most advanced form of the quarternary subsector
renewable resource
a natural resource that is potentially inexhaustible either because it is constantly (eg solar) or periodically (eg biomass) replenished as long as its use does not exceed its maximum sustainable yield
secondary activity
those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; includes manufacturing, construction, and power generation
shifting cultivation
crop production on tropical forest clearings kept in cultivation until their quickly declining fertility is lost. Cleared sites are then abandoned and new sites are prepared. Synonyms: slash-and-burn agriculture / swidden agriculture
subsistence economy
an economic system of relatively simple technology in which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their own and their family's needs; little or no exchange occurs outside or the immediate or extended family
technology
the integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods developed within or used by a culture to successfully carry out purposeful and productive tasks
tertiary activity
those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and that bring together consumers and providers of services; includes wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services, and personal and professional services of all kinds
tragedy of the commons
the observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of a resource available to all, it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their collective pressures may diminish total yield or destroy the resource altogether
truck farm
the intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; synonyms horticultural farming, market gardening
usable resources
mineral deposits that have been identified and can be recovered at current prices and with current technology
von Thunen model
model developed by vonThunen, German economist and landowner, to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization
built environment
part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the landscape created by humans
custom
body of traditional practices, usages, and conventions that regulate social life
folk culture
body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous, isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group
folklore
oral tradition of a group; includes proverbs, prayers, common expressions, superstitions, beliefs, narrative tales, and legends
folkways
the learned behavior shared by a society that prescribes accepted and common modes of conduct
material culture
tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies
nonmaterial culture
the oral traditions, songs, and stories of a culture group along with its beliefs and customary behaviors
placelessness
the replacement of local variety with a homogeneous and standardized landscape (eg Walmart)
popular culture
general mass of people primarily urban based, constantly adopting, conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever-changing common modes of behavior and fads of material and nonmaterial culture
popular region
a region perceived and defined by its inhabitants, usually with a popularly given or accepted nickname; vernacular region
vernacular house
built in traditional form but without formal plans or drawings
vernacular region
a region perceived and defined by its inhabitants, usually with a popularly given or accepted nickname; popular region
acculturation
the adoption by the immigrants of the values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and speech of the receiving society
adaptation
natural selection - characters are transmitted that enable people to adapt to particular environment conditions such as climate
amalgamation theory
formal term for the "melting pot" concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream
assimilation
two part process - behavioral (cultural) assimilation and structural assimilation
behavioral assimilation
(syn cultural assimilation) integration into a common cultural life through shared experience, language, intermarriage, and sense of history; rough equivalent of acculturation
chain migration
the assemblage in one area if the relatives, friends or unconnected compatriots of the first arrivals; attracted by both favorable reports and by familiar presences in specific locales of the New World
charter group
the dominant first arrivals establishing the cultural norms and standards against which other immigrant groups were measured
cluster migration
a pattern of movement and settlement resulting from the collective action of distinctive social or ethnic group
colony
a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland
culture rebound
the readoption by later generations of culture traits and identities associated with immigrant forebears or ancestral homelands
ethnic enclave
cluster of an ethnic population
ethnic geography
The study of diffusion, migration and mixing of peoples of different origins
ethnic group
populations that feel themselves bound together by a common origin and set off from other groups by ties of culture, race, religion, language, or nationality
ethnic island
the dispersed and rural counterparts of urban ethnic neighborhoods
ethnicity
a shared ancestry and cultural heritage, the retention of a set of distinctive traditions, and the maintenance of in-group interactions and relationships
ethnic province
entire regions of North America that have become associated with larger ethnic or racial aggregations
ethnocentrism
tendency to evaluate other cultures against the standards of one's own
first effective settlement
the culture that first moves into an area has a tremendous influence on the area no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been. Work of Wilbur Zelinsky
gene flow
acts to homogenize neighboring populations via interbreeding. No scientific basis for race
genetic drift
a heritable trait that appears by chance in one group and becomes accentuated through inbreeding. Differentiates populations in non-adaptive ways
ghetto
when a cluster is perpetuated by external constraints and discriminatory actions
host society
the established dominant group
natural selection
or adaptation - characteristics that are transmitted that enable people to adapt to particular environment conditions, such as climate
race
population subset whose members have in common some hereditary biological characteristics that set them apart physically from other human groups
segregation
the extent to which members of an ethnic group are not uniformly distributed in relation to the rest of the population
social distance
how much social "space" is there between differing racial or ethnic groups in society, refers to the amount of space that operates between individuals or groups as a result of differences in race, age, culture, ethnicity, etc.
structural assimilation
fusion of immigrant ethnics with the groups, social systems, and occupations of the host society and the adoption of common attitudes and values
tipping point
a critical percentage of newcomer housing occupancy is reached which may precipitate a rapid exodus by the former majority population
animism
belief that life exists in all objects, rocks, trees, mountains etc or that inanimate objects are the abode of the dead, of spirits, and of gods
Buddhism
universalizing faith founded 6th century BC in India; moral philosophy that offered an explanation for evil and human suffering
caste
birth structure of society; an expression of the eternal transmigration of souls
Christianity
origin in the life and teachings of Jesus, a Jewish preacher of the 1st century; promised Messiah; salvation to all races not just Jews
Confucianism
the importance of proper conduct; no churches or clergy; worship of ancestors encouraged
creole
if pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers; may have lost their former native tongue; acquire more complex grammatical structure and enhanced vocabulary
dialect
recognizable speech variants
ethnic religion
strong territorial and cultural group identification; usually become a member by birth or by adoption of a complex lifestyle and cultural identity, not by simple declaration of faith
geographic dialect
regional dialects
Hinduism
oldest major religion (?); no common creed, single doctrine, or central ecclesiastical organization; caste system; aim is to conform to prescribed social rituals and duties for assigned caste
Islam
"submission" to the will of God; springs from Judaic roots; many similar beliefs
isogloss
the outer limit of the territorial extent of a dialect
Judaism
belief in a single God laid the foundation of both Christianity and Islam
language
organized system of spoken words by which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension
language family
group of languages descended from a single, earlier tongue
lingua franca
an established language used for communication by people whose native tongues are mutually incomprehensible
linguistic geography
the study of the character and spatial pattern of dialects and language
monotheism
belief in a single deity
multilingualism
societies in which two or more languages are in common use
official language
the required language of instruction in schools, government business, courts, etc
pidgin
amalgam of languages, usually a simplified form of one with borrowings from another local language
polytheism
belief in many gods
protolanguage
reconstructed earlier form of a language
religion
unified system of beliefs and practices that join all those who adhere to them in a single moral community
secularism
an indifference to or rejection of religion or religious belief
shamanism
tribal religion; involves community acceptance of a shaman, religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who can intercede with the spirit world
Shinto
The Way of the Gods; Japanese nature and ancestor worship; a structure of customs and rituals rather than an ethical or moral system
social dialect
denote social class and educational level
speech community
people who speak a common language
standard language
the accepted norms of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation
syncretism
a combination of different forms of belief and practice
Taoism
an ideology whose central theme is the Way, a philosophy teaching that eternal happiness lies in total identification with nature and deploring passion, unnecessary invention; simple life of individuals
toponym
place names
toponymy
the study of place names
tribal (traditional) religion
special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, unique identity with localized culture groups not absorbed into modern society, and close ties to nature
universalizing religion
faiths that claim applicability to all humans and that seek to transmit their beliefs through missionary work and conversion
vernacular
nonstandard language or dialect native to the locale or adopted by the social group
agricultural density
number of rural residents per unit of agriculturally productive land
arithmetic density
number of people per unit area of land (crude density)
carrying capacity
the number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology
cohort
population group unified by a common characteristic
crude birth rate (CBR)
annual number of births per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population
crude death rate (CDR)
annual number of deaths per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population (mortality rate)
crude density
number of people per unit area of land (arithmetic density)
demographic equation
summarizes the contribution made to regional population by the combination of natural change (births to deaths) and net migration
demographic transition
relationship between population growth and economic development; traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality associated with industrialization and urbanization
demography
the statistical study of human population
dependency ratio
simple measure of the number of economic dependents, old or young, that each 100 people in the productive years must support
doubling time
time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant
ecumene
permanently inhabited areas of the earth's surface
homeostatic plateau
population is equivalent to the carrying capacity of the occupied area
J-curve
curve showing J-shaped or exponential growth
Malthus
an English economist and demographer; all biological populations have a potential for increase that exceeds the actual rate of increase, and the resources for the support of increase are limited
mortality rate
annual number of deaths per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population (crude death rate)
natural increase
increases or decreases due to migration are not included
neo-Malthusianism
view that to lift living standards, the existing national efforts to lower mortality rates had to be balanced by governmental programs to reduce birth rates
nonecumene
uninhabited or very sparsely occupied zone (anecumene)
overpopulation
overcrowding; value judgment
physiological density
total population divided by arable land area
population (demographic) momentum
because of the age composition of many societies, numbers of births will continue to grow even as fertility rates per woman decline
population density
relationship between the number of inhabitants and the area they occupy
population geography
a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
population projection
estimate of future population size, age, and sex composition
population pyramid
a graphic device that represents a population's age and sex composition based on current data
rate of natural increase
derived by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate; increases or decreases due to migration are not included
rates
the frequency of occurrence of an event during a given time frame for a designated population
replacement level
the level of fertility at which populations replace themselves
S-curve
exponential growth of J-curve is bent to horizontal and converted to S-curve; population die-back
total fertility rate (TFR)
rate and probability of reproduction among fertile females
zero population growth (ZPG)
a condition for individual countries when births plus immigration equals deaths plus emigration
activity space
area within which we move freely on our rounds of regular activity
awareness space
knowledge of opportunity locations beyond normal activity space
chain migration
the mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination
channelized migration
The tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity
complementarity
when two regions through an exchange of commodities can specifically satisfy each others demands
counter migration
the likelihood that as many as 25% of all migrants will return to their place of origin (return migration)
critical distance
the distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel
distance decay
decline of activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin
friction of distance
the increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
gravity model
mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places based on distance and population
intervening opportunity
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
law of retail gravitation
two cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to the populations of the two cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the two cities to the intermediate place
(Reilly's Law)
migration
the permanent or planned long-term relocation of residential place and activity space
mobility
all types of human territorial movement
movement bias
any aggregate control on or regularity of movement of people, commodities, or communication. (Included are distance bias, direction bias, and network bias.)
network
set of routes and the set of places that they connect
personal communication field
the informational counterpart of that person's activity space
personal space
the zone of privacy and separation from others our culture or our physical circumstances require or permit
place perception
the awareness we have, as individuals, of home and distant places and the beliefs we hold about them
place utility
the measure of an individual's satisfaction with a given residential location
potential model
a measurement of the total interaction opportunities available under gravity model assumptions to a center in a multicenter system
pull factor
positive attractions of the migration destination
push factor
negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate
Reilly's law
two cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to the populations of the two cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the two cities to the intermediate place (law of retail gravitation)
return migration
the likelihood that as many as 25% of all migrants will return to their place of origin (counter migration)
space-time prism
the volume of space and length of time within which our activities must be confined
spatial interaction
the movement of peoples, ideas, and commodities between different places
spatial search
the process by which individuals evaluate the alternative locations to which they might move
step migration
a migration in which an eventual long-distance relocation is undertaken in stages eg rural to central city residence through farm to small town to suburb to the major central city)
territoriality
the emotional attachment to and the defense of home ground as a root explanation of much human action and response
transferability
acceptable costs of an exchange
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
artifact
material objects used to fill basic needs of food, protection, and defense
carrying capacity
the number of persons supportable within a given area by the technologies at their disposal
cultural convergence
the sharing of technologies, organizational structures, etc among widely separated societies in a modern world united by instantaneous communication and efficient transportation
cultural divergence
The likelihood or tendency for cultures to become increasingly dissimilar with the passage of time.
cultural ecology
the study of the relationship between a culture group and the natural environmental it occupies
cultural integration
interlocking nature of all aspects of a culture
cultural landscape
the earth's surface as modified by human action
culture
specialized behavioral patterns, understandings, adaptations, and social systems
culture complex
individual cultural traits that are functionally related
culture hearth
center of innovation and invention from which key culture traits and elements move to exert an influence on surrounding regions
culture realm
a set of cultural regions showing related cultural complexes and landscapes
culture region
a portion of the earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
culture system
sharing enough cultural traits and complexes to be recognized as a distinctive cultural entity
culture trait
unit of learned behavior ranging from language spoken, tools used, games played etc
diffusion
process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or to another across space
diffusion barrier
any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus prevent the acceptance of an innovation
environmental determinism
the belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and their thoughts
expansion diffusion
the spread of an item or idea from one place to others
hunter-gatherer
pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure with the limited variety of tools and weapons at their disposal
ideological subsytem
ideas, beliefs, and knowledge of a culture and of the ways in which these things are expressed in speech or other forms of communication
independent invention
a trait that many cultural hearths that develop independent of each other
innovation
changes to a culture that result from ideas created within the social group and adopted by the culture
mentifact
abstract belief systems
multilinear evolution
used to explain common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
possibilism
viewpoint that people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development
relocation diffusion
innovation or idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals or populations
sociofact
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational, and religious institutions. Components of the sociological subsystem of culture.
sociological subsystem
expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations in economic, political, military, religious and other associations
syncretism
process of fusion of the old and new
technological subsystem
composed of material objects, together with the techniques of their use, by means of which people are able to live
absolute direction
Based on the cardinal points of North, South, East, and West. These appear uniformly and independently in all cultures, derived from obvious givens of nature
absolute distance
spatial separation between two points on the earth's surface
absolute location
the identification of a place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates
accessibility
the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
concentration
the spatial property of being crowded together
connectivity
broad concept implying all the tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected
cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape.
density
measure of the number or quantity of anything within a defined unit of area
dispersion
the amount of spread of a phenomenon over an area
formal region
a region/area sharing one or more physical or cultural feature (uniform region)
functional region
Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define this kind of region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations. (nodal region)
geographic information system
an integrated software package for handling, processing, and analyzing geographical data and computer database in which every item of information is tied to a precise geographic location
globalization
the increasing interconnection of peoples and societies in all parts of the world
mental map
images about an area developed by an individual on the basis of information or impressions received, interpreted or stored
model
simplified abstraction of reality, structured to clarify causal relationships
natural landscape
The array of landforms that constitutes the Earth's surface (mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus) and the physical features that mark them (such as water bodies, soils, and vegetation). Each geographic realm has its distinctive combination of natural landscapes.
nodal region
Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define this kind of region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations. (functional region)
pattern
geometric arrangement of objects in space
perceptual region
reflect feelings and images rather than objective data
projection
the method chosen to represent the earth's curved surface as a flat map
region
earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external difference from surrounding territories
regional concept
The view that physical and cultural phenomena on the surface of the earth are rationally arranged by complex, diverse, but comprehensible interrelated spatial processes.
relative direction
culturally based and locationally variable direction despite reference to cardinal compass points eg. "Near and Far East"
relative distance
Distance measured in terms such as cost or time which are more meaningful for the space relationship in question
relative location
the position of a place in relation to that of other places or activities
remote sensing
detecting the nature of an object and the content of an area from a distance
scale
the mathematical relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area
site
the physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of the place itself
situation
external relations of a locale; relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question
spatial diffusion
the process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant points with which it is directly or indirectly connected.
spatial distribution
the arrangement of items on the earth's surface
spatial interaction
places interact with each other in structured and comprehensible ways
spatial system
functions as a unit because its component parts are interdependent
uniform region
a region/area sharing one or more physical or cultural feature. (formal regions)
Least Cost Theory
This is Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. Weber assumes an industry will choose its location based on the desire to minimize production costs and thus maximize profits. Drawbacks to the model include its assumption of an immobile and equal labor force.
Locational Interdependence
Hotellings theory of locational interdependence asserts that an industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their chief competitors and related industries. In other words, industries do not make isolated decisions on locations without considering where other, related industries exist.
Rostow's Modernization Model
Developed in the 1950s, this model exemplifies the liberal development ideology, as opposed to structuralist theory, Under the model, all countries develop in a five-stage process. The development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff industry that allows the country to grow a comparative advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffuses throughout the country's economy. Drawbacks to this model include its not identifying cultural and historic differences in development trajectories because it is based on North American and western European development histories.
Agglomeration
Clumping together of industries for mutual advantage.
Agglomeration economy
Positive effects of agglomeration for clustered industries and for the consumers of their products, often in the form of lower costs to the industries and consumers.
Alfred Weber
Twentieth-century German geographer who created the least cost theory to predict the locational decisions made by industrial operations.
Asian tigers
Group of new industrial countries comprising Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
Backwash effect
Occurs when other regions suffer a drain of resources and talent due to agglomeration in another region.
Big Mac Index
Tool for calculating purchasing power parity that compares prices of a Big Mac throughout the world.
Commodification
Giving a price tag or value to something that was not previously perceived as having a money-related value.
Comparative advantage
Ability of a country (or place) to produce a good or offer a service better than another country can.
Conglomerate corporation
Massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production process.
Deglomeration
Unclumping of industries because of the negative effects and higher costs associated with overcrowding.
Dependency theory
Theory that exemplifies the structuralist perspective, arguing that the political and economic relations among countries limit the ability of less-developed countries to modernize and develop.
Development
Process of improving the material condition of people through the growth and diffusion of technology and knowledge.
Development gap
Widening difference between development levels in more-developed and less-developed countries.
Economy
System of production, consumption, and distribution.
Ecotourism
Type of tourist attraction built around an environmentally friendly activity that aims to preserve the earth and its resources.
Export-processing zone
Region of a less-developed country that offer tax breaks and loosened labor restrictions to attract export-driven production processes, such as factories producing goods for foreign markets; sometimes called free-trade zone.
Fair trade
Policies that favor oversight of foreign direct investment and outsourcing to ensure that workers throughout the world are guaranteed a living wage for their work, enough to survive in their home countries.
Footloose industry
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants.
Ford production (Fordist) method
Manufacturing process broken down into differentiated components, with different groups of people performing different tasks to complete the product.
Foreign direct investment
Investment by a multinational corporation in a foreign country's economy.
Free trade
Concept of allowing multinational corporations to outsource without any regulation except for the basic forces of market capitalism.
Globalization
Originally, this buzz term referred to the spread of economic activities from a home country to other parts of the world, but its reach has profoundly influenced cultural and political realms.
Global warming theory
Argues that the earth's surface temperature is gradually rising because of the greenhouse effect, which is responsible for changing global climate patterns.
Greenhouse effect
Rise in the average temperature on the earth as a result of the buildup of chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and other polluting outputs of industrialization.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Value of total output of goods and services produced in a country, usually over one year.
High-tech corridor (technopole)
Place where technology and computer industries agglomerate.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Measurement developed by the United Nations to rank development levels of countries.
Industrialization
Growth of manufacturing activity in an economy or a region; usually occurs alongside a decrease in the number of primary economic activities within a country.
Industrial Revolution
Social and economic change that began in England in the 1760s when the industrial geography of England changed significantly and later diffused to other parts of western Europe. In this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped. Coal was the leading energy source fueling the industrial revolution in England's textile-focused industrial explosion.
Informal sector
Network of business transactions that are not reported and therefore not included in the country's GDP and official economic projection.
International trade approach
Method of improving a country's development that pushes the country to identify its unique set of strengths in the world and to channel investment toward building on these strengths. To compete internationally, this approach argues, a country must find out what it can offer the world and capitalize on that good or service.
Less-developed country
Country on the economically poorer side of the development spectrum.
Liberal development theories
Theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move.
Locational interdependence
Theory that industries choose locations based on where their competitors are located.
Maquiladora zone
Special economic zone on Mexico's northern border with the United States.
Market orientation
Result of locating weight-gaining industries near the marketplace for the heavier product.
Material orientation
Result of locating weight-losing industries near the supply of raw resources.
More-developed country
Country on the wealthier side of the development spectrum.
Multinational corporation (MNC)
As one of the primary agents of globalization, this business has headquarters in one country and production facilities in one or more other countries; sometimes called a transnational corporation.
New industrial country (NIC)
Country that has recently established an industrialized economy based on manufacturing and global trade.
New international division of labor
Division of the manufacturing process across several countries, wherein different pieces of the product are made in different countries, and then the pieces are assembled in yet another country.
Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
Organization not run by a government but by a charity or private organization that supplies resources and money to local businesses and causes advancing economic and human development.
North-south gap
Pattern of development levels in which most most-developed countries exist in the Northern Hemisphere whereas most less-developed countries exist in the Southern Hemisphere.
Outsourcing
An MNC relocating a piece (or all) of its manufacturing operations to factories in other countries.
Pacific Rim economic region
Together with China and Japan, the four Asian Tigers make up the core of the Asian economic engine.
Primary economic activities
Economic activities that revolve around getting raw materials from the earth.
Privatization
Selling of publicly operated industries to market-driven corporations.
Purchasing power parity (PPP)
Measurement tool of calculating exchange rates so that each currency buys an equal amount of goods as every other currency.
Quaternary economic activities
Include assembling, distributing, and processing information, and managing other business operations.
Quinary economic activities
Subset of quaternary activities that involves the highest-level of decision making, such as that of a legislature or a presidential cabinet.
Secondary economic activities
Economic activities related to processing raw materials (acquired through primary activities) into a finished product of greater value.
Self-sufficiency approach
Approach to improving economic development by building a country's independence from foreign economies and fostering its ability to provide for its own people.
Spatially fixed costs
Costs that remain the same no matter where a business chooses to locate.
Spatially variable costs
Costs that vary (or change) depending on the location of an industrial activity.
Special economic zone
Region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
Structural adjustments
Stipulations that require the country receiving an international loan to make economic changes in order to use the loan.
Structuralist theories
Argue that less-developed countries are locked into a vicious cycle of entrenched underdevelopment by the global economic system that supports an unequal structure.
Substitution principle
Asserts that an industry will choose to move to access lower labor costs despite higher transportation costs.
Sustainable development
Balance between the pace of human development and the environment that supports that development. A level of development that does not destroy the earth's ability to regenerate its resource supply for future generations of inhabitants of the earth.
Tertiary economic activities
Economic activities that move, sell, and trade the products made in primary and secondary activities.
Weight-gaining process
Process that takes raw materials and creates a heavier final product.
Weight-losing process
Manufacturing process that takes raw materials and converts them into a product that is lighter than the raw materials that went into making the finished product.
What is a map?
A two dimensional model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
What is a place?
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
What is a region?
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.
What is scale?
The relationship between a map's distances and the actual distances on Earth.
What are connections?
Relationships among people and objects across a barrier of space.
What is cartography?
The science of map-making.
Where did the earliest surviving maps come from?
Babylonian clay tablets.
Who was the first to demonstrate that Earth is spherical?
Aristotle.
Who was the first person to use the word 'geography'?
Eratosthenes.
What is projection?
The method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a map.
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System. A computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
What is remote sensing?
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite.
What is GPS?
Global Positioning System. A system that determines one's exact location on Earth.
What is location?
The position that something occupies on Earth's surface.
What is a toponym?
The name given to a place on Earth.
Place names have what kind of origins in Brazil?
Portuguese.
Place names have what kind of origins in S. Africa?
Dutch.
What is The Board of Geographical Names?
A committee established in the late nineteenth century to be the final arbiter of names on U.S. maps.
What is site?
The physical character of a place.
What is situation?
The location of a place relative to other places.
What is Meridian?
Longitude. An arc drawn between the North and South poles.
Parallel.
Latitude. A circle drawn around the globe PARALLEL to the equator.
What is GMT?
Greenwich Mean Time. The internationally agreed upon official time reference for Earth.
What is the International Date Line?
The longitude at which one moves forward or backward 1 day.
What is cultural landscape?
Defined by Carl Sauer, it is the area of Earth modified by human habitation.
What is a formal region?
An area within which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics.
What is a functional region?
An area organized around a node or focal point.
What is a vernacular/perceptual region?
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
What is a mental map?
One's perceived image of the surrounding landscape's organization.
What is culture?
The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
What is cultural ecology?
The geographic study of human-environment relations.
Factors with similar distributions have what?
Spatial association.
What is environmental determinism?
The belief that the physical environment directly CAUSES social development.
Who were the pioneers of environmental determinism?
Alex con Humboldt and Carl Ritter.
What is possibilism?
The counter to environmental determinism; the belief that while environment may limit certain actions of a people, it cannot TOTALLY predestine their development, and humans may adapt.
What are resources?
The substances found on Earth that are useful to people.
Climate of often classified using a system developed by who?
German Vladimir Koppen.
Vladimir Koppen's climate classifications divides Earth into 5 climate regions, which are...
Tropical climates, dry climates, warm mid-latitude climates, cold mid-latitude climates, and polar climates.
What is a polder?
A piece of land that is created by draining water from an area.
What European country has been thoroughly modified again and again?
The Netherlands.
What US state has been insensitively altered to a great extent?
Florida.
What is globalization?
A process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
How is globalization affecting the world's economy?
Globalization allows money and products to be transacted very, very quickly, with thanks to modern technology. However, it has heightened economic differences among some places.
How is globalization affecting world cultures?
Smaller cultures are slowly diminishing as popular culture takes over, and many argue that "western" culture is destroying many other cultures. Wow I said
"culture" a lot.
Tired of studying for AP?
HERE'S A DOG.
What is distribution?
The arrangement of a feature in a space.
What is density?
The frequency with which something occurs.
What is arithmetic density?
The total number of people per unit of arable land.
What is physiological density?
The total number of people per unit of arable land.
What is agricultural density?
The total number of farmers per unit of arable land.
What is concentration?
The extent of a feature's spread of space.
What is pattern?
The geometric arrangement of objects in space.
What is space-time compression?
The reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place.
What is distance decay?
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
What is diffusion?
The process by which a characteristic spreads over space.
Innovations spread from the place they originated, called...
Hearths.
What are the two kinds of diffusion?
Relocation and expansion.
What is relocation diffusion?
The spread of an idea through the physical movements of people.
What is expansion diffusion?
The spread of an idea through "snowballing." This is further divided into 3 subgroups.
What are the 3 subgroups of expansion diffusion?
Hierarchical, contagious, and stimulus.
What is hierarchical diffusion?
The spread of something from one key person or node of authority and power to other lower persons or places.
What is contagious diffusion?
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
What is stimulus diffusion?
The spread of an underlying principle, even if the characteristic itself fails to diffuse.
What is demography?
The scientific study of population characteristics.
What is overpopulation?
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
For what three reasons is the study of population critically important right now?
1. More people are alive now than any other point in Earth's history.
2. The world's population has increased a lot lately.
3. Virtually all population growth is concentrated in LDCs.
Where is two-thirds of the world's population clustered, in order of highest population to lowest population.
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southeast Asia.
All of the top population clusters have what similarities?
Easy access to water, low lying areas, fertile soil, temperate climate.
How much of the world's population live in East Asia?
1/5.
What countries does the East Asian region include?
Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, and China.
What is the world's most populous country?
China.
Name some of the fertile valleys in China that population is clustered around/in.
Yangtze and Huang.
What countries does the South Asian region include?
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka.
Where are the highest populations in Europe?
Near the coalfields of England, Germany, and Belgium.
What countries does the Southeast Asian region include?
Islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Philippines.
What is ecumene?
The portion of Earth's surface permanently occupied by humans.
Humans sparsely inhabit lands that are too...
Dry, wet, cold, or high.
What is the equation for arithmetic density?
Total number of people divided by total land area.
What kind of agricultural density do MDCs have, and why?
A low agricultural density because they have technology to make up for farmers. This frees farmers to work in factories and such.
What is CBR?
Crude birth rate. The total number of live births per every 1000 people per year.
What is CDR?
Crude death rate. The total number of deaths per every 1000 people per year.
What is NIR?
Natural increase rate. The percentage by which a population grows in a year, excluding migration.
What is doubling time?
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant NIR.
What is TFR?
Total fertility rate. The average number of births a woman will have in her lifetime during her childbearing years.
What is IMR?
Infant mortality rate. The annual number of deaths of infants under one year old compared to number of live births.
What is life expectancy?
The average a number of years a newborn can expect to live at current mortality levels.
About how many people are being added to the world yearly?
80 million.
The worlds NIR in the first decade of the 21st century is...?
1.2%
Virtually 100% of the world's Natural Increase is located where?
LDCs.
Where is NIR highest?
LDCs.
Where is TFR highest?
LDCs.
Where is CBR highest?
LDCs.
Where is CDR highest?
LDCs.
Where is IMR highest?
LDCs.
Where is life expectancy highest?
MDCs.
Where is doubling time higher?
MDCs.
What is a geographic model that divides a country's development into 4 stages based on its population growth patterns?
The demographic transition.
Most of humanitys occupancy on Earth was characterized by which stage of the demographic transition?
The first.
During the first stage of the demographic transition, which two levels vary considerably but stay relatively high?
CBR and CDR.
What was the NIR like in the first stage of the demographic transition?
Stayed around zero.
Around 8000 BC, the world population started increasing because of what?
The agricultural revolution.
Define the agricultural revolution.
The first domestication of animals and plants.
In stage 2 what happens to CDR and CBR?
CDR plummets and CBR stays pretty much the same.
How is the NIR in stage 2?
It shoots up like a rocket ship.
The reason behind many countries entering stage 2 after 1750 was...?
The industrial revolution.
What was the industrial revolution?
A period of improvements in industrial technology, like the invention of steam engines and mass production.
Why did the industrial revolution decrease CDR?
The new machines resulted in fact agricultural production, which caused more wealth, which meant more money towards sanitation and personal hygiene.
How many countries are still in stage 1?
Zero duh fatso.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 when?
Around the 1950s.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 for a different reason than the previous countries had. What was this push?
The medical revolution.
Define the medical revolution.
The diffufsion of medical technology from MDCs to the LDCs.
What were the results of the medical revolution in recent LDCs?
They eliminated many traditional causes of death and enambled more people to experience longer and healthier lives.
A country moves from stage 2 to 3 when CBR does what?
When CBR begans to drop sharply.
What happens to CDR during stage 3?
It continues to decline, but not as rapidly as in stage 2.
What is overall population like during stage 3?
It continues to grow, because CBR is higher than CDR.
How is NIR in stage 3?
It declines.
Why does CBR decline in stage 3?
- Improved medical technologies ensure newborns to live a full life, so parents will have less.
- People are more likely to work in offices or shops rather than in farms, so they don't need lots of kids to help with chores on the farm.
Apartheid
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
blockbusting
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
centripetal force
An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
centrifugal force
a force that divides people and countries
barrio
A Spanish-speaking neighborhood
barrioization
Defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood
shatterbelt
a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (e.g., Israel or Kashmir today; Eastern Europe during the Cold War,...).
dowry death
in arranged marriages in india, bride is killed for failure of father to pay dowry
ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
ethnic conflict
different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense
ethnic group
Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics
ethnicity
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups; practice of judging another culture by one's own standards
ghetto
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
multi-ethnic state
A state that contains more than one ethnicity
multinational state
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
nation
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
nationality
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
nation state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
plural society
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
race
Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor.
racism
Belief that one racial group is superior to another
self determination
the right of people to choose their own form of government
segregation
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
residential segregation
Defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as "the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment."
social distance
refers to the amount of space that operates between individuals or groups as a result of differences in race, age, culture, ethnicity, etc.
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
border landscape
There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
natural/physical boundary
When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary
ethnographic/cultural boundary
a political boundary that follows some cultural border, such as linguistic or religious border
geometric boundary
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines.
buffer state
small country located between two hostile powers and whose presence decreased the possibility of conflict between them
capital
the city that is the seat of government of a state, nation, or province
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
market economy
economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets
mixed economy
an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
core area
The territorial nucleus from which a country grows in an area and over time, often containing the national capital and the main center of commerce, culture, and industry.
confederation
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
Conference of Berlin (1884)
meeting of 14 mostly European countries on how to divided up Africa amongst themselves disregarding African input or ethnic groups
decolonization
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
democratization
the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
devolution
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
domino theory
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
positional dispute
when states argue about the location of the border
territorial dispute
occurs when a country claims an area existing in some other country's territory or when the border is under dispute
resource dispute
dispute over an area containing resources necessary for a state's survival and growth
functional dispute
when states cannot agree on policies that apply near border
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
the seazone extending 200 nautical miles from the coast over which a state has special rights as to the exploration and use of marine resources
electoral regions
The different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions.
enclave
a distinct region or community enclosed within a larger territory
exclave
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
European Union
a supranational organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
forward capital
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
frontier
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
geopolitics
study of government and its policies as affected by physical geography
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
global commons
those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Heartland Theory
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Rimland Theory
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
immigrant states
a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.
imperialism
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
minority-majority districting
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries, must where possible, create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority
multicore state
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.
monetary policy
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
international organization
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
Iron Curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
irredentism
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
landlocked
A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Mackinder
developed the Heartland Theory
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Median line principle
according to the UNCLOS, the EEZ for maritime countries located closer to each other than 200 miles is located halfway in between.
microstate
A state that encompasses a very small land area.
primate city
urban center disproportionately larger than the 2nd largest city; dominates the country's social, political, and economic activities
privatization
process of converting government enterprises into privately owned companies
Nunavut
Canadian territory that was given to the Inuit, in which they could live with autonomy, or the right to govern themselves.
raison d'etre
reason or justification for existing
Ratzel
German geographer who discussed geopolitics and created the organic theory which postulated that a country, which is an aggregate of organisms (people), would itself function and behave like an organism ... to survive, a state requires nourishment - in the global context, this means territory - to gain political power.
reapportionment
The process of reassigning representation based on population after every census
regionalism
a group (ofen ethnic) which identifies with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
reunification
bring together parts of a country under one government (ex: Germany)
satellite state
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
separatist movement
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from the dominant political institution under which they suffer
spatial force
Spatially, devolutionary events most often occur on the margins of the state.
third wave of democratization
the defeat of dictatorships in South America to Eastern Europe, to some parts in Africa.
three pillars
Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today
sovereignty
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Spykman, Nicholas
Developed the Rimland Theory
state
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
stateless nation
term used to imply that a group, usually a minority ethnic group, is a nation but does does not have a State of its own (ex. Kurds, Palestinians)
suffrage
right to vote
supranationalism
three or more countries agree to give up a degree of autonomy in order to pursue common goals. (ex. European Union)
territorial morphology
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohension and political viability.
compact state
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions. (ex. Poland)
fragmented state
A state that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts.(ex. Indonesia)
elongated state
A state with a long, narrow shape. (Example. Chile)
perforated state
A state that completely surrounds another state. (Example: South Africa)
territoriality
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended.
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
A code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles (22km) from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide (370-km-wide) exclusive economic zones.
USSR collapse
Dec 1, 1991, a vote for independence in the Ukraine ( the most powerful republic)
enfranchisement
A statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote).

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