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a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the built environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earth's surface
technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed
Geographic Information Systems
a computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show those data
a form of diffusion in which the cultural component spreads outward to new places while remaining strong in its original hearth
a form of diffusion that involves the actual movement of the original adopters from their point of origin to a new place
occurs when the "weaker" of two cultures adopts traits from the more dominant culture
in cultural convergence, this occurs when the original traits of the weaker culuter are completely erased and replaced by the traits of the more dominant culture
occurs when two cultures of just about equal power or influence meet and exchange ideas or traits without the domination seen in acculturation and assimilation
a form of expansion diffusion in which numerous places or people near the point of origin become adopters
occurs when the diffusion innovation or concept spreads from a place or person of power or high susceptibility to another ina leveled pattern
in which many hearths invent similar innovations without knowing about each other
the idea that the natural environment places limits on the set of choices available to people
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of society
area where innovations in culture began and from which such cultural elements spread
theory that a place is occupied by different groups of people, each group leaving an imprint on the place from which the next group learns
isolated group that has had long-lasting culture traits that have not changed substantially over time
expansion diffusion in which the innovative idea diffuses from its hearth outward, but the original idea is changed by the new adopters
the look of housing, effected by the available materials, the environment the house is in, and the popular culture of the time
the truthfulness of origins, attributions, commitments, sincerity, devotion, and intentions; the quality of being authentic
the process by which cultures adopt customs and knowledge from other cultures and use them for their own benefit
cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities
any informal norms, virtues, or values characterized by being followed through imitation and mild social pressure but not strictly enforced or put into law
consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, and customs that are the traditions of that culture, subculture, or group
the art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
the loss of uniqueness of place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next
cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced, western societies
the exchange of cultural features that results when groups come into continuous first-hand contact
the process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech, particularities, or mannerisms when they come into contact with another society or culture
the separation of cultures through less and less contact and interaction between them; restriction of a culture from outside influences
core / periphery / semi-periphery
the core-periphery idea that the core houses the main economic power of the region and the outlying region and that the periphery houses the lesser economic ties with the semi-periphery in-between the two
the way people categorize their culture, sometimes by the way they dress and what they eat
a portion of earth's surface occupied by a population sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
the notion that what happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice-versa
the process by which people in a local place mediate and alter regional, national, and global processes
adjusting to a translation based on the cultural environment of the target language
cultural shatter belt
an area of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
a sizable area inhabited by an ethnic majority that exhibits a strong sense of attachment to the region
a neighborhood, typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
a forced or voluntarily segregated residential area housing a racial, ethnic, or religious minority
a measure of the degree to which members of a minority group are non-uniformly distributed among the total population
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue
set of languages with a relatively recent common origin and many similar characteristics
a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce
in multilingual countries the language selected to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
in the context of arranged marriages in India, disputes over the price to be paid by the family of the bride to the father of the groom (the dowry) have, in some cases, lead to the death of the bride
social differences between men and women, rather than the anatomical, biological differences between the sexes
the difference of average expected life spans between different groups of people, nations, races, etc.
maternal mortality rate
annual number of deaths of women from pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births
religion; belief that enlightenment will come through knowledge, especially self knowledge, elimination of greed, craving, and desire, complete honesty, and never hurting another person or animal
a philosophy of ethnics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius
a territory legally or politically attached to another territory with which is not physically contiguous
a territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory
geomancy (feng shui)
the Chinese art and science of the placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, buildings, and cities
religion; unique in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology, or agreement on its origins
religion; roots in the teachings of Abraham, who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god
comprises the religious, institutional, and cultural elements of the most populace branch of the Latte Day Saint movement
a universalizing religion, which is an attempt to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just those of one culture or location
the idea that after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human
religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy
the idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on earth not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife
religion; located in japan and related to Buddhism; focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship
religion; began in northern Inda; the principal belief is that faith in Vahiguru emphasizes faith in god
branch of Islam; orthodox/traditionalist; believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems; accept traditions of Muhammad as authoritative
branch of Islam; Persian variation; believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of the Imams, descendants of Ali
the development of a new form of culture trait by the fusion of two or more distinct parental elements
religion; based upon Tao-te-ching, a book by Lao-Tsu which focuses on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature
a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided, or of a group of religious leaders
belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope
religion; based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster; founded in the eartly part of the 5th century BCE
a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
shows percentage of population in 5-year age groups, with the youngest group at the base of the pyramid and the oldest group at the top. The length of the bar represents the percentage of the total population in that group. Males are usually on the left and females on the right
Total fertility rate (TFR)
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives.
Natural Increase Rate
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
an official count or survey of a population, typically recording various details of individuals
Demographic Transition Model
A sequence of demographic changes in which a country moves from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
a model used in population geography that describes the ages and number of males and females within a given population; also called a population pyramid
Total Fertility Rate
The number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life
The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64 (non-working), compared to the number of people active in the labor force.
Epidemiological Transition Model
The theory that says that there is a distinct cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition model. It can help explain how a country's population changes so dramatically.
Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
circumstances of too few people to sufficiently develop the resources of a country or region to improve the level of living of its inhabitants.
This is when the projection population shows exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and services.
Variation of population density over a particular geographic area. For example, a country has a high population density in its urban areas and a much lower population density in rural areas.
Regions grouped together by the stage of the demographic transition model that most countries in the region are in. Cape Verde (Africa) is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile (Latin America) is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark (Europe) is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
a curve that depicts logistic growth; shape of an "S." The leveling off of a J-Curve exponential growth.
There are two types, contagious and hierarchical. Hierarchical is along high density areas that spread from urban to rural areas. Contagious is spread through the density of people. This is important in determining how the disease spread so you can predict how it will spread.
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
practice of assessing the location and composition of particular populations.
Standard of Living
a level of material comfort in terms of goods and services available to someone
This is an adaptation that has become less helpful than harmful. This relates to human geography because it has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on. Which shows as the world changes so do the things surrounding it
the effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by doing births minus deaths plus (or minus) net migration. This is important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
the ability to meet humanities current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs; the 3 components of sustainability are economy, environment, and society (culture)
Infant Mortality Rate
a figure that describes the number of babies that die within the first year of their lives in a given population
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
Conditions that draw people to another location (pull factors) or cause people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region (push factors)
the government-required relocation of people away from overpopulated core regions to less crowded areas. (Indonesia has a policy of moving people away from Java.)
an official government strategy designed to affect any or all of several objectives including the size, composition, and distribution of population
movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity; not forced.
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
patterns of movement; Intercontinental- over countries' borders, Interregional- within a region or certain area, Rural-Urban- from a rural area to an urban area (farm to a city)
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (food) (1766-1834)
A belief that the world is characterized by scarcity and competition in which too many people fight for too few resources. Named for Thomas Malthus, who predicted a dismal cycle of misery, vice, and starvation as a result of human overpopulation
multinational corporation (MNC)
A large business organization operating in a number of different national economies; the term implies a more extensive form of transnational corporation.
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Subcontracting production or services rather than performing those activities "in house."
Those parts of the economy involved in making natural resources available for use or further processing; included are mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and grazing.
A method of setting prices that occurs when marginal revenue equals marginal cost.
Those parts of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration - including administration of the other economic activity levels; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities.
A sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations. Also deemed the most advanced form of the quaternary subsector.
A less-than-ideal best location, but one providing an acceptable level of utility or satisfaction.
Those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; included are manufacturing, construction, and power generation.
When using a shorter haul distance is more expensive that one long haul distance.
spatial margin of profitability
The set of points delimiting the area within which a firm's profitable operation is possible.
spatially fixed cost
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located.
spatially variable cost
An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its amount and its relative share of total costs.
In industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location.
A curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product supplied.
(syn: fixed costs of transportation) The costs incurred, and charged, for loading and unloading freight at origin and destination points and for the paperwork involved; costs charged each shipment for terminal facility use and unrelated to distance of movement of line-haul costs.
Those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and that bring together consumers and providers of services; included are wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services, and personal and professional services of all kinds.
transfer of technology
The process of skill transferring, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing.
transnational corporation (TNC)
A large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies; a form of multinational corporation.
A market-oriented industry whose establishments are distributed in direct proportion to the distribution of population.
uniform (isotropic) plain
A hypothetical portion of the earth's surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like.
variable costs of transportation
[syn: line-haul costs (syn: over-the-road costs) The costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution.
When a product undergoes the gain of net weight by combining several things together to create a larger product.
When a product undergoes the loss of net weight by removal of the original materials.
The spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefit; in economic geography, the concentration of productive enterprises for collective of cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources and market access.
(syn. external economies) The savings to an individual enterprise derived for locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as other factories or retail stores.
A location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another (e.g., from barge to railroad).
The principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage of advantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trade exists.
Companies that have diversified into various economic activities usually through a process of mergers and acquisitions.
The process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation.
The cumulative and sustained decline in the contribution of manufacturing to a national economy.
An activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant.
A descriptive term applied to manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting material or product in not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation.
The manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass consumption of standardized goods. Named after Henry Ford, who innovated many of its production techniques.
The charge levied by a transporter for the loading, moving, and unloading of goods; includes line-haul costs and terminal costs.
friction of distance
A measure of the retarding or restraining effect of distance on spatial interaction. Generally, the greater the distance, the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
The use of advanced scientific ideas and special skills and tools to meet people's needs.
A situation in which an increase or a decrease in price will not significantly affect demand for the product
The term applied to the rapid economic and social changes in agriculture and manufacturing that followed the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry of England in the last quarter of the 18th century.
A hypothetical portion of the earths surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like.
Process that redefines and simplifies manufacturing by reducing inventory levels and delivering raw materials just when they are needed on the production line
least-cost theory (Weber)
(syn. Weberian analysis) The view that the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable.
(syn. over-the-road costs) The costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs.
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
locational interdependence (Hotelling)
The circumstance under which the locational decision of a particular firm is influenced by the locations chosen by competitors.
A simple graphic model in Weberian analysis to illustrate the derivation of the least-transport-cost location of an industrial establishment.
The point of intersection of demand and supply curves of a given commodity; at equilibrium the market is cleared of the commodity.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
Factories built by US companies in Mexico near the US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
The tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material; this is experienced when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs.
multiplier effect: industrial agglomerations
In industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (such as a new plant opening) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and industrial growth.
multiplier effect: urban geography
In urban geography, the expected addition of nonbasic workers and dependents to a city's total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment.
precipitation that is unusually acidic; created when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen change chemically as they dissolve in water vapor in the atmosphere and return to earth as acidic rain, snow, or fog
a major ecological community, including plants and animals, occupying an extensive earth area
(syn ecosphere) the thin film of air, water, and earth within which we love, including the atmosphere, surrounding and subsurface waters, and the upper reaches of the earth's crust
extension of desertlike landscapes as a result of overgrazing, destruction of the forests, or other human-induced changes, usually in semiarid regions
a population of organisms existing together in a small, relatively homogeneous area (pond, forest, small island) together with the energy, air, water, soil, and chemicals upon which it depends
surroundings; the totality of things that in any way may affect an organism, including both physical and cultural conditions; a region characterized by a certain set of physical conditions
the introduction into the biosphere of materials that because of their quantity, chemical nature, or temperature have a negative impact on the ecosystem or that cannot be readily disposed of by natural recycling processes
the practice of allowing plowed or cultivated land to remain uncropped or only partially cropped for one or more growing seasons
heating of the earth's surface as shortwave solar energy passes through the atmosphere, which is transparent to it but opaque to reradiated long-wave terrestrial energy; also, increasing the opacity of the atmosphere through the addition of increased amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases that trap heat
discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material that poses a substantial threat to human health or to the environment when improperly disposed of or stored
the natural system by which water is continuously circulated through the biosphere by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
the tendency for certain kinds of air pollutants to lower temperatures on earth by reflecting incoming sunlight back into space and thus preventing it from reaching (and heating) the earth
limiting factor principle
the distribution of an organism or the structure of an ecosystem can be explained by the control exerted by the single factor (such as temperature, light, water) that is most deficient, that is, that falls below the levels required
a gas molecule consisting of three atoms of oxygen formed when diatomic oxygen is exposed to UV radiation. In the upper atmosphere it forms a normally continuous, thin layer that blocks UV light; in the lower atmosphere it constitutes a damaging component of photochemical smog
the annual alteration of crops that make differential demands on or contributions to soil fertility
the complex mixture of loose material including minerals, organic and inorganic compounds, living organisms, air, and water found at teh earth's surface and capable of supporting plant life
the wearing away and removal of rock and soil particles from exposed surfaces by agents such as moving water, wind, or ice
the practice of planting crops on steep slopes that have been converted into a series of horizontal steplike level plots
(syn geometric boundary) a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude
movement by a dissident minority intent to achieve partial or total independence of territory it occupies from the state within which it lies
1. economic and social forces pushing households and businesses outward from central and inner-city locations OR 2. forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state
1. a force attracting establishments or activities to the city center OR 2. forces tending to bind together the citizens of a state
(syn ethnographic boundary) a boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
a guiding principle of US foreign policy during the Cold War period; to prevent or restrict the expansion of the Soviet Union's influence or control beyond its then existing limits
(1) the national or world districts of concentrated economic power, wealth, innovation, and advanced technology
(2) the heartland or nucleus of a state, containing its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity
the transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory
a geopolitics theory made part of American containment (of the former Soviet Union) policy beginning in the 1950s. The theory maintained that if a single country fell under Soviet influence or control, its neighbors would likely follow, creating a ripple effect like a line of toppling dominos
the study of the geographical elements of the organization and results of elections
European Union (EU)
(syn Common Market) an economic association established in 1957 by a number of Western European countries to promote free trade among its members
a portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
exclusive economic zone (EEZ)
as established in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, a zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from the a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
(syn boundary dispute) a disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration
(syn artificial boundary) a boundary without obvious physical geographic basis; often a section of a parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude
branch of political geography treating national power, foreign policy, and international relations as influenced by geographic considerations of location, space, resources, and demography
to redraw voting district boundaries in such a way as to give one political party maximum electoral advantage and to reduce that of another party, to fragment voting blocks, or to achieve other nondemocratic objectives
the belief of Halford Mackinder that the interior of Eurasia provided a likely base for world conquest
the policy of a state wising to incorporate within itself territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but that lies within a neighboring state
a culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, beliefs, and customs
a sense of unity binding the people of a state together; devotion to the interest of a particular country or nation; an identification with the state and an acceptance of national goals
a state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation
(syn physical boundary) a boundary line based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains or rivers
a state whose territory is interrupted by a separate, independent state totally contained within its borders
(syn natural boundary) a boundary line based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains or rivers
a branch of human geography concerned with the spatial analysis of political phenomena
a state of basically compact form but with one or more narrow extensions of territory
group, frequently ethnic group, identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
a former boundary line that is still discernible and marked by some cultural landscape features
disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds
the belief of Nicholas Spykman that domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base for world conquest
desired regional autonomy expressed by a culturally distinctive group within a larger, politically dominant culture
(syn country) an independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and having full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs
a boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that considers the cultural characteristics of the bounded area
term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives
(syn boundary dispute, functional dispute) disagreement between states over the control of surface area
systematic open and covert action employing fear and terror as a means of political coercion
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
a code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide exclusive economic zones
those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside the city itself, earning income for the community
central business district (CBD)
the nucleus or "downtown" of a city, where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated, mass transit systems converge, and land values and building densities are high
that part of the metropolitan area contained within the boundaries of the main city around which suburbs have developed
an urban or other settlement node whose primary function is to porovide goods and services to the consuming population of its hinterland, complementary region, or trade area
central place theory
a deductive theory formulated by Christaller to explain the size and distribution of settlements through reference to competitive supply of goods and services to dispersed rural populations
a multifunctional nucleated settlement with a CBD and both residential and nonresidential land uses
concentric zone model
(syn zonal model) a model describing urban land uses as a series of circular belts or rings around a core CBD, each ring housing a distinct type of land use
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
the manufacturing and service activities performed by the basic sector of a city's labor force; functions of a city performed to satisfy demands external to the city itself and, in that performance, earning income to support the urban population
distinct sizable nodal concentration of retail and office space of lower than central city densities and situated on the outer fringes of older metropolitan areas; usually localized by or near major highway intersections
a restricted access subdivision or neighborhood, often surrounded by a barrier, with entry permitted only for residents and their guests; usually totally planned in land use and design, with "residents only" limitations on public streets and parjs
the movement into the inner portions of American cities of middle- and upper-income people who replace low-income populations, rehabilitate the structures they occupied, and change the social character of neighborhoods
in the US, a large functionally integrated settlement area compromising one or more whole county units and usually containing several urbanized areas; discontinuously built up, it operates as a coherent economic while
the postulate that large cities develop by peripheral spread not from one central business district but from several nodes of growth, each of specialized use. The separately expanding use districts eventually coaliesce at their margins
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity; in urban geography, the expected addition of nonbasic workers and dependents to a city's total employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment
two or more nearby cities, potentially or actually complementary in function, that cooperate by developing transportation links and communications infrastructure joining them
(service sector) those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no "export" implication
a country's leading city, disproportionately larger and functionally more complex than any other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed of a base of small towns and an absence of intermediate-sized cities
an observed regularity in the city-size distribution of some country. In a rank-size hierarchy, the population of any given town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy; the nth-ranked city will be 1/n the size of the largest city
a description of urban land uses as wedge-shaped sectors radiating outward from the CBD along transportation corridors. The radial access routes attract particular uses to certain sectors, with high-status residential uses occupying the most desirable wedges
(syn nonbasic sector) those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no "export" implication
a functionally specialized segment of a large urban complex located outside the boundaries of the central city; usually, a relatively homogeneous residential community, separately incorporated and administered
a nucleated settlement that contains a CBD but that is small and less functionally complex than a city
a continuously built-up urban landscape defined by building and population densities with no reference to the political boundaries of the city; it may contain a central city and many contiguous towns, suburbs, and unincorporated areas
one of a small number of interconnected,internationally dominant centers (eg London, NY) that together control the global systems of finance and commerce
the spatial grouping of people or activities for mutual benefits; the concentration of productive enterprises for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources and market access
external economics : the savings to an individual enterprise derived from locational association with a cluster of other similar economic activities, such as factories or retail stores
a location where goods are transferred from one type of carrier to another eg barge to railroad
the principle that an area produces the items for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free trades exists
the process of deconcentration; the location of industrial or other activities away from established agglomerations in response to growing costs of congestion, competition, and regulation
an activity cost (as of investment in land, plant, and equipment) that must be met without regard to level of output; an input cost that is spatially constant
a firm with manufacturing activities for which the cost of transporting activities or product is not important in determining location of production; an industry or firm showing neither market nor material orientation
the manufacturing economy and system derived from assembly-line mass production and the mass consumption of standardized goods. Named after Henry Ford.
foreign direct investment
the purchase or construction of foreign factories and other fixed assets by transnational corporations; also purchase of or merging with foreign companies
the charge levied by a transported for the loading, moving, and unloading of goods. Includes line-haul costs and terminal costs
the basic structure of services, installations, and facilities needed to support industrial, agricultural, and other economic development; included are transport and communications, along with water, power, and other public utilities
the application of a single-haul freight rate from origin to destination even though the shipment is halted for processing en route, after which the journey is completed
(synonym Weberian analysis) the view that the optimum location ofa manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable
(syn over-the-road costs) the costs involved in the actual physical movement of goods (or passengers); costs of haulage (including equipment and routeway costs), excluding terminal costs
the circumstance under which the locational decision of a particular firm is influenced by the locations chosen by competitors
the point of intersection of demand and supply curves of a given commodity; at equilibrium the market is cleared of the commodity
the tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs
the tendency of an economic activity to locate near or at its source of raw material; happens when material costs are highly variable spatially and/or represent a significant share of total costs
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity eg in industrial agglomerations, the cumulative processes by which a given change (new plant openings) sets in motion a sequence of further industrial employment and infrasctructure growth
the relocation of business processes and services to a lower-cost foreign location particularly white-collar, technical, professional, and clerical services
Either 1 producing abroad parts or products for domestic use or sale OR 2. subcontracting production or services rather than performing those activities "in house"
those parts of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities
a sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations; also most advanced form of the quaternary subsector
a less-than-ideal best location, but one providing an acceptable level of utility or satisfaction
those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; included are manufacturing, construction, and power generation
spatially fixed costs
an input cost in manufacturing that remains constant wherever production is located
spatially variable costs
an input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its amount and its relative share of total costs
spatial margin of profitability
the set of points delimiting the area within which a firm's profitable operation is possible
in industry, the tendency to substitute one factor of production for another in order to achieve optimum plant location
(syn fixed costs of transportation) the costs incurred, and charged, for loading and unloading freight at origin and destination points and for the paperwork involved; costs charged each shipment for terminal facility use and unrelated to distnace of movement or line-haul costs
those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and the bring together consumers and providers of services (eg wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services)
transnational corporation (TNC)
(syn multinational corporation) a large business organization operating in at least two separate national economies
a market-oriented industry whose establishments are distributed in direct proportion of population
(syn isotropic plain) a hypothetical portion of the earth's surface assumed to be an unbounded, uniformly flat plain with uniform and unvarying distribution of population, purchasing power, transport costs, accessibility, and the like
(syn. least-cost theory) the view that the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment is at the place where the costs of transport and labor and the advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration are most favorable
the science and practice of farming, including the cultivation of the soil and the rearing of stock
the view that population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive and intensive subsistence agriculture
a system of production of goods and services for exchange in competitive markets where price and availability are determined by supply and demand
the branch of systematic geography concerned with how people support themselves, with the spatial patterns of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, and with the areal variation of economic variation of economic activities over the surface of the earth
a crop or livestock system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit area of land. May be part of either a subsistence or a commercial economy
primary activities involving the mining and quarrying of nonrenewable metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources
primary activities involving the subsistence or commercial harvesting of renewable natural resources of land or water. Primitive gathering involves local collection of food and other materials of nature, both plant and animal; commercial gathering usually implies forestry and fishing industries
a term suggesting the great increases in food production, primarily in subtropical areas, accomplished through the introduction of very high-yielding grain crops, particularly wheat, maize, and rice
any agricultural system involving the application of large amounts of capital and/or labor per unit of cultivated land; may be part of either subsistence or commercial economy
maximum sustainable yield
the maximum rate at which a renewable resource can be exploited without impairing its ability to be renewed or replenished
a physically occurring item that a population perceives to be necessary and useful to its maintenance and well-being; also resource
a natural resource that is not replenished or replaced by natural processes or is used at a rate that exceeds its replacement rate
a system of production of goods and services, usually consumed or distributed by a governmental agency, in quantities, at prices, and in locations determined by governmental program
a large agricultural holding, frequently foreign owned, devoted to the production of a single export crop
the part of an economy involved in making natural resources available for use or further processing; includes mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, grazing
the part of the economy concerned with research, with the gathering and dissemination of information, and with administration; often considered only as a specialized subdivision of tertiary activities
a sometimes separately recognized subsection of tertiary activity management functions involving highest-level decision making in all types of large organizations. The most advanced form of the quarternary subsector
a natural resource that is potentially inexhaustible either because it is constantly (eg solar) or periodically (eg biomass) replenished as long as its use does not exceed its maximum sustainable yield
those parts of the economy involved in the processing of raw materials derived from primary activities and in altering or combining materials to produce commodities of enhanced utility and value; includes manufacturing, construction, and power generation
crop production on tropical forest clearings kept in cultivation until their quickly declining fertility is lost. Cleared sites are then abandoned and new sites are prepared. Synonyms: slash-and-burn agriculture / swidden agriculture
an economic system of relatively simple technology in which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their own and their family's needs; little or no exchange occurs outside or the immediate or extended family
the integrated system of knowledge, skills, tools, and methods developed within or used by a culture to successfully carry out purposeful and productive tasks
those parts of the economy that fulfill the exchange function, that provide market availability of commodities, and that bring together consumers and providers of services; includes wholesale and retail trade, associated transportational and governmental services, and personal and professional services of all kinds
tragedy of the commons
the observation that in the absence of collective control over the use of a resource available to all, it is to the advantage of all users to maximize their separate shares even though their collective pressures may diminish total yield or destroy the resource altogether
the intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; synonyms horticultural farming, market gardening
mineral deposits that have been identified and can be recovered at current prices and with current technology
von Thunen model
model developed by vonThunen, German economist and landowner, to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization
part of the physical landscape that represents material culture; the landscape created by humans
body of institutions, customs, dress, artifacts, collective wisdoms, and traditions of a homogeneous, isolated, largely self-sufficient, and relatively static social group
oral tradition of a group; includes proverbs, prayers, common expressions, superstitions, beliefs, narrative tales, and legends
the learned behavior shared by a society that prescribes accepted and common modes of conduct
tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles, and technologies
the oral traditions, songs, and stories of a culture group along with its beliefs and customary behaviors
the replacement of local variety with a homogeneous and standardized landscape (eg Walmart)
general mass of people primarily urban based, constantly adopting, conforming to, and quickly abandoning ever-changing common modes of behavior and fads of material and nonmaterial culture
a region perceived and defined by its inhabitants, usually with a popularly given or accepted nickname; vernacular region
a region perceived and defined by its inhabitants, usually with a popularly given or accepted nickname; popular region
the adoption by the immigrants of the values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and speech of the receiving society
natural selection - characters are transmitted that enable people to adapt to particular environment conditions such as climate
formal term for the "melting pot" concept of the merging of many immigrant ethnic heritages into a composite American mainstream
(syn cultural assimilation) integration into a common cultural life through shared experience, language, intermarriage, and sense of history; rough equivalent of acculturation
the assemblage in one area if the relatives, friends or unconnected compatriots of the first arrivals; attracted by both favorable reports and by familiar presences in specific locales of the New World
the dominant first arrivals establishing the cultural norms and standards against which other immigrant groups were measured
a pattern of movement and settlement resulting from the collective action of distinctive social or ethnic group
the readoption by later generations of culture traits and identities associated with immigrant forebears or ancestral homelands
populations that feel themselves bound together by a common origin and set off from other groups by ties of culture, race, religion, language, or nationality
a shared ancestry and cultural heritage, the retention of a set of distinctive traditions, and the maintenance of in-group interactions and relationships
entire regions of North America that have become associated with larger ethnic or racial aggregations
first effective settlement
the culture that first moves into an area has a tremendous influence on the area no matter how tiny the initial band of settlers may have been. Work of Wilbur Zelinsky
acts to homogenize neighboring populations via interbreeding. No scientific basis for race
a heritable trait that appears by chance in one group and becomes accentuated through inbreeding. Differentiates populations in non-adaptive ways
or adaptation - characteristics that are transmitted that enable people to adapt to particular environment conditions, such as climate
population subset whose members have in common some hereditary biological characteristics that set them apart physically from other human groups
the extent to which members of an ethnic group are not uniformly distributed in relation to the rest of the population
how much social "space" is there between differing racial or ethnic groups in society, refers to the amount of space that operates between individuals or groups as a result of differences in race, age, culture, ethnicity, etc.
fusion of immigrant ethnics with the groups, social systems, and occupations of the host society and the adoption of common attitudes and values
a critical percentage of newcomer housing occupancy is reached which may precipitate a rapid exodus by the former majority population
belief that life exists in all objects, rocks, trees, mountains etc or that inanimate objects are the abode of the dead, of spirits, and of gods
universalizing faith founded 6th century BC in India; moral philosophy that offered an explanation for evil and human suffering
origin in the life and teachings of Jesus, a Jewish preacher of the 1st century; promised Messiah; salvation to all races not just Jews
the importance of proper conduct; no churches or clergy; worship of ancestors encouraged
if pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers; may have lost their former native tongue; acquire more complex grammatical structure and enhanced vocabulary
strong territorial and cultural group identification; usually become a member by birth or by adoption of a complex lifestyle and cultural identity, not by simple declaration of faith
oldest major religion (?); no common creed, single doctrine, or central ecclesiastical organization; caste system; aim is to conform to prescribed social rituals and duties for assigned caste
organized system of spoken words by which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension
an established language used for communication by people whose native tongues are mutually incomprehensible
the required language of instruction in schools, government business, courts, etc
amalgam of languages, usually a simplified form of one with borrowings from another local language
unified system of beliefs and practices that join all those who adhere to them in a single moral community
tribal religion; involves community acceptance of a shaman, religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who can intercede with the spirit world
The Way of the Gods; Japanese nature and ancestor worship; a structure of customs and rituals rather than an ethical or moral system
an ideology whose central theme is the Way, a philosophy teaching that eternal happiness lies in total identification with nature and deploring passion, unnecessary invention; simple life of individuals
tribal (traditional) religion
special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, unique identity with localized culture groups not absorbed into modern society, and close ties to nature
faiths that claim applicability to all humans and that seek to transmit their beliefs through missionary work and conversion
the number of people an area can support on a sustained basis given the prevailing technology
crude birth rate (CBR)
annual number of births per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population
crude death rate (CDR)
annual number of deaths per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population (mortality rate)
summarizes the contribution made to regional population by the combination of natural change (births to deaths) and net migration
relationship between population growth and economic development; traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality associated with industrialization and urbanization
simple measure of the number of economic dependents, old or young, that each 100 people in the productive years must support
time it takes for a population to double if the present growth rate remains constant
an English economist and demographer; all biological populations have a potential for increase that exceeds the actual rate of increase, and the resources for the support of increase are limited
annual number of deaths per 1000 population; without regard to the age or sex composition of that population (crude death rate)
view that to lift living standards, the existing national efforts to lower mortality rates had to be balanced by governmental programs to reduce birth rates
population (demographic) momentum
because of the age composition of many societies, numbers of births will continue to grow even as fertility rates per woman decline
a division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population.
a graphic device that represents a population's age and sex composition based on current data
rate of natural increase
derived by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate; increases or decreases due to migration are not included
the frequency of occurrence of an event during a given time frame for a designated population
exponential growth of J-curve is bent to horizontal and converted to S-curve; population die-back
zero population growth (ZPG)
a condition for individual countries when births plus immigration equals deaths plus emigration
the mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination
The tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity
when two regions through an exchange of commodities can specifically satisfy each others demands
the likelihood that as many as 25% of all migrants will return to their place of origin (return migration)
the distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel
mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places based on distance and population
the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
law of retail gravitation
two cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to the populations of the two cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the two cities to the intermediate place
any aggregate control on or regularity of movement of people, commodities, or communication. (Included are distance bias, direction bias, and network bias.)
the zone of privacy and separation from others our culture or our physical circumstances require or permit
the awareness we have, as individuals, of home and distant places and the beliefs we hold about them
a measurement of the total interaction opportunities available under gravity model assumptions to a center in a multicenter system
two cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to the populations of the two cities and inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the two cities to the intermediate place (law of retail gravitation)
the likelihood that as many as 25% of all migrants will return to their place of origin (counter migration)
the volume of space and length of time within which our activities must be confined
the process by which individuals evaluate the alternative locations to which they might move
a migration in which an eventual long-distance relocation is undertaken in stages eg rural to central city residence through farm to small town to suburb to the major central city)
the emotional attachment to and the defense of home ground as a root explanation of much human action and response
the number of persons supportable within a given area by the technologies at their disposal
the sharing of technologies, organizational structures, etc among widely separated societies in a modern world united by instantaneous communication and efficient transportation
The likelihood or tendency for cultures to become increasingly dissimilar with the passage of time.
the study of the relationship between a culture group and the natural environmental it occupies
center of innovation and invention from which key culture traits and elements move to exert an influence on surrounding regions
a portion of the earth's surface occupied by populations sharing recognizable and distinctive cultural characteristics
sharing enough cultural traits and complexes to be recognized as a distinctive cultural entity
process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or to another across space
any conditions that hinder either the flow of information or the movement of people and thus prevent the acceptance of an innovation
the belief that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions, and their thoughts
pre-agricultural people dependent on the year-round availability of plant and animal foodstuffs they could secure with the limited variety of tools and weapons at their disposal
ideas, beliefs, and knowledge of a culture and of the ways in which these things are expressed in speech or other forms of communication
changes to a culture that result from ideas created within the social group and adopted by the culture
used to explain common characteristics of widely separated cultures developed under similar ecological circumstances
viewpoint that people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development
innovation or idea is physically carried to new areas by migrating individuals or populations
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational, and religious institutions. Components of the sociological subsystem of culture.
expected and accepted patterns of interpersonal relations in economic, political, military, religious and other associations
composed of material objects, together with the techniques of their use, by means of which people are able to live
Based on the cardinal points of North, South, East, and West. These appear uniformly and independently in all cultures, derived from obvious givens of nature
the identification of a place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates
broad concept implying all the tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected
Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define this kind of region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations. (nodal region)
geographic information system
an integrated software package for handling, processing, and analyzing geographical data and computer database in which every item of information is tied to a precise geographic location
images about an area developed by an individual on the basis of information or impressions received, interpreted or stored
The array of landforms that constitutes the Earth's surface (mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus) and the physical features that mark them (such as water bodies, soils, and vegetation). Each geographic realm has its distinctive combination of natural landscapes.
Area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define this kind of region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward. This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations. (functional region)
earth areas that display significant elements of internal uniformity and external difference from surrounding territories
The view that physical and cultural phenomena on the surface of the earth are rationally arranged by complex, diverse, but comprehensible interrelated spatial processes.
culturally based and locationally variable direction despite reference to cardinal compass points eg. "Near and Far East"
Distance measured in terms such as cost or time which are more meaningful for the space relationship in question
the mathematical relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area
external relations of a locale; relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question
the process of dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant points with which it is directly or indirectly connected.
Least Cost Theory
This is Alfred Weber's theory of industrial location, explaining and predicting where industries will locate based on cost analysis of transportation, labor, and agglomeration factors. Weber assumes an industry will choose its location based on the desire to minimize production costs and thus maximize profits. Drawbacks to the model include its assumption of an immobile and equal labor force.
Hotellings theory of locational interdependence asserts that an industry's locational choices are heavily influenced by the location of their chief competitors and related industries. In other words, industries do not make isolated decisions on locations without considering where other, related industries exist.
Rostow's Modernization Model
Developed in the 1950s, this model exemplifies the liberal development ideology, as opposed to structuralist theory, Under the model, all countries develop in a five-stage process. The development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff industry that allows the country to grow a comparative advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffuses throughout the country's economy. Drawbacks to this model include its not identifying cultural and historic differences in development trajectories because it is based on North American and western European development histories.
Positive effects of agglomeration for clustered industries and for the consumers of their products, often in the form of lower costs to the industries and consumers.
Twentieth-century German geographer who created the least cost theory to predict the locational decisions made by industrial operations.
Group of new industrial countries comprising Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
Occurs when other regions suffer a drain of resources and talent due to agglomeration in another region.
Big Mac Index
Tool for calculating purchasing power parity that compares prices of a Big Mac throughout the world.
Giving a price tag or value to something that was not previously perceived as having a money-related value.
Ability of a country (or place) to produce a good or offer a service better than another country can.
Massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production process.
Unclumping of industries because of the negative effects and higher costs associated with overcrowding.
Theory that exemplifies the structuralist perspective, arguing that the political and economic relations among countries limit the ability of less-developed countries to modernize and develop.
Process of improving the material condition of people through the growth and diffusion of technology and knowledge.
Widening difference between development levels in more-developed and less-developed countries.
Type of tourist attraction built around an environmentally friendly activity that aims to preserve the earth and its resources.
Region of a less-developed country that offer tax breaks and loosened labor restrictions to attract export-driven production processes, such as factories producing goods for foreign markets; sometimes called free-trade zone.
Policies that favor oversight of foreign direct investment and outsourcing to ensure that workers throughout the world are guaranteed a living wage for their work, enough to survive in their home countries.
Industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants.
Ford production (Fordist) method
Manufacturing process broken down into differentiated components, with different groups of people performing different tasks to complete the product.
Foreign direct investment
Investment by a multinational corporation in a foreign country's economy.
Concept of allowing multinational corporations to outsource without any regulation except for the basic forces of market capitalism.
Originally, this buzz term referred to the spread of economic activities from a home country to other parts of the world, but its reach has profoundly influenced cultural and political realms.
Global warming theory
Argues that the earth's surface temperature is gradually rising because of the greenhouse effect, which is responsible for changing global climate patterns.
Rise in the average temperature on the earth as a result of the buildup of chlorofluorocarbons, methane, and other polluting outputs of industrialization.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Value of total output of goods and services produced in a country, usually over one year.
Human Development Index (HDI)
Measurement developed by the United Nations to rank development levels of countries.
Growth of manufacturing activity in an economy or a region; usually occurs alongside a decrease in the number of primary economic activities within a country.
Social and economic change that began in England in the 1760s when the industrial geography of England changed significantly and later diffused to other parts of western Europe. In this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped. Coal was the leading energy source fueling the industrial revolution in England's textile-focused industrial explosion.
Network of business transactions that are not reported and therefore not included in the country's GDP and official economic projection.
International trade approach
Method of improving a country's development that pushes the country to identify its unique set of strengths in the world and to channel investment toward building on these strengths. To compete internationally, this approach argues, a country must find out what it can offer the world and capitalize on that good or service.
Liberal development theories
Theories that claim development is a process through which all countries can move.
Theory that industries choose locations based on where their competitors are located.
Result of locating weight-gaining industries near the marketplace for the heavier product.
Result of locating weight-losing industries near the supply of raw resources.
Multinational corporation (MNC)
As one of the primary agents of globalization, this business has headquarters in one country and production facilities in one or more other countries; sometimes called a transnational corporation.
New industrial country (NIC)
Country that has recently established an industrialized economy based on manufacturing and global trade.
New international division of labor
Division of the manufacturing process across several countries, wherein different pieces of the product are made in different countries, and then the pieces are assembled in yet another country.
Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
Organization not run by a government but by a charity or private organization that supplies resources and money to local businesses and causes advancing economic and human development.
Pattern of development levels in which most most-developed countries exist in the Northern Hemisphere whereas most less-developed countries exist in the Southern Hemisphere.
An MNC relocating a piece (or all) of its manufacturing operations to factories in other countries.
Pacific Rim economic region
Together with China and Japan, the four Asian Tigers make up the core of the Asian economic engine.
Primary economic activities
Economic activities that revolve around getting raw materials from the earth.
Purchasing power parity (PPP)
Measurement tool of calculating exchange rates so that each currency buys an equal amount of goods as every other currency.
Quaternary economic activities
Include assembling, distributing, and processing information, and managing other business operations.
Quinary economic activities
Subset of quaternary activities that involves the highest-level of decision making, such as that of a legislature or a presidential cabinet.
Secondary economic activities
Economic activities related to processing raw materials (acquired through primary activities) into a finished product of greater value.
Approach to improving economic development by building a country's independence from foreign economies and fostering its ability to provide for its own people.
Spatially variable costs
Costs that vary (or change) depending on the location of an industrial activity.
Special economic zone
Region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and other incentives to attract foreign business and investment.
Stipulations that require the country receiving an international loan to make economic changes in order to use the loan.
Argue that less-developed countries are locked into a vicious cycle of entrenched underdevelopment by the global economic system that supports an unequal structure.
Asserts that an industry will choose to move to access lower labor costs despite higher transportation costs.
Balance between the pace of human development and the environment that supports that development. A level of development that does not destroy the earth's ability to regenerate its resource supply for future generations of inhabitants of the earth.
Tertiary economic activities
Economic activities that move, sell, and trade the products made in primary and secondary activities.
Manufacturing process that takes raw materials and converts them into a product that is lighter than the raw materials that went into making the finished product.
What is a region?
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.
What is GIS?
Geographic Information System. A computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
What is The Board of Geographical Names?
A committee established in the late nineteenth century to be the final arbiter of names on U.S. maps.
What is GMT?
Greenwich Mean Time. The internationally agreed upon official time reference for Earth.
What is cultural landscape?
Defined by Carl Sauer, it is the area of Earth modified by human habitation.
What is a formal region?
An area within which everyone shares one or more distinctive characteristics.
What is a vernacular/perceptual region?
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
What is culture?
The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
What is environmental determinism?
The belief that the physical environment directly CAUSES social development.
What is possibilism?
The counter to environmental determinism; the belief that while environment may limit certain actions of a people, it cannot TOTALLY predestine their development, and humans may adapt.
Vladimir Koppen's climate classifications divides Earth into 5 climate regions, which are...
Tropical climates, dry climates, warm mid-latitude climates, cold mid-latitude climates, and polar climates.
What is globalization?
A process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
How is globalization affecting the world's economy?
Globalization allows money and products to be transacted very, very quickly, with thanks to modern technology. However, it has heightened economic differences among some places.
How is globalization affecting world cultures?
Smaller cultures are slowly diminishing as popular culture takes over, and many argue that "western" culture is destroying many other cultures. Wow I said
"culture" a lot.
What is space-time compression?
The reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place.
What is distance decay?
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
What is expansion diffusion?
The spread of an idea through "snowballing." This is further divided into 3 subgroups.
What is hierarchical diffusion?
The spread of something from one key person or node of authority and power to other lower persons or places.
What is contagious diffusion?
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
What is stimulus diffusion?
The spread of an underlying principle, even if the characteristic itself fails to diffuse.
What is overpopulation?
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
For what three reasons is the study of population critically important right now?
1. More people are alive now than any other point in Earth's history.
2. The world's population has increased a lot lately.
3. Virtually all population growth is concentrated in LDCs.
Where is two-thirds of the world's population clustered, in order of highest population to lowest population.
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Southeast Asia.
All of the top population clusters have what similarities?
Easy access to water, low lying areas, fertile soil, temperate climate.
Name some of the fertile valleys in China that population is clustered around/in.
Yangtze and Huang.
Where are the highest populations in Europe?
Near the coalfields of England, Germany, and Belgium.
What countries does the Southeast Asian region include?
Islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Philippines.
What kind of agricultural density do MDCs have, and why?
A low agricultural density because they have technology to make up for farmers. This frees farmers to work in factories and such.
What is NIR?
Natural increase rate. The percentage by which a population grows in a year, excluding migration.
What is doubling time?
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant NIR.
What is TFR?
Total fertility rate. The average number of births a woman will have in her lifetime during her childbearing years.
What is IMR?
Infant mortality rate. The annual number of deaths of infants under one year old compared to number of live births.
What is life expectancy?
The average a number of years a newborn can expect to live at current mortality levels.
What is a geographic model that divides a country's development into 4 stages based on its population growth patterns?
The demographic transition.
Most of humanitys occupancy on Earth was characterized by which stage of the demographic transition?
During the first stage of the demographic transition, which two levels vary considerably but stay relatively high?
CBR and CDR.
Around 8000 BC, the world population started increasing because of what?
The agricultural revolution.
What was the industrial revolution?
A period of improvements in industrial technology, like the invention of steam engines and mass production.
Why did the industrial revolution decrease CDR?
The new machines resulted in fact agricultural production, which caused more wealth, which meant more money towards sanitation and personal hygiene.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America entered stage 2 for a different reason than the previous countries had. What was this push?
The medical revolution.
What were the results of the medical revolution in recent LDCs?
They eliminated many traditional causes of death and enambled more people to experience longer and healthier lives.
What is overall population like during stage 3?
It continues to grow, because CBR is higher than CDR.
Why does CBR decline in stage 3?
- Improved medical technologies ensure newborns to live a full life, so parents will have less.
- People are more likely to work in offices or shops rather than in farms, so they don't need lots of kids to help with chores on the farm.
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
Defined by geographer James Curtis as the dramatic increase in Hispanic population in a given neighborhood
a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals (e.g., Israel or Kashmir today; Eastern Europe during the Cold War,...).
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
different ethnic groups struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense
Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics
Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups; practice of judging another culture by one's own standards
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language, ethnicity, religion, and other cultural attributes
Identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions
Defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as "the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment."
refers to the amount of space that operates between individuals or groups as a result of differences in race, age, culture, ethnicity, etc.
Triangular slave trade
A practice, primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border
When a physical feature such as a mountain or river determine a political boundary
a political boundary that follows some cultural border, such as linguistic or religious border
small country located between two hostile powers and whose presence decreased the possibility of conflict between them
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets
an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
The territorial nucleus from which a country grows in an area and over time, often containing the national capital and the main center of commerce, culture, and industry.
a political system in which a weak central government has limited authority, and the states have ultimate power.
Conference of Berlin (1884)
meeting of 14 mostly European countries on how to divided up Africa amongst themselves disregarding African input or ethnic groups
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
the spread of representative government to more countries and the process of making governments more representative
The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
occurs when a country claims an area existing in some other country's territory or when the border is under dispute
dispute over an area containing resources necessary for a state's survival and growth
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
the seazone extending 200 nautical miles from the coast over which a state has special rights as to the exploration and use of marine resources
a part of a country that is seperated from the rest of the country and surrounded by foreign territory.
a supranational organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory usually near an international border, it confirms the states determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention.
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
those parts of our environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
Hypothesis proposed by Halford MacKinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provided the base for world conquest.
a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants. Popular because of their economy, political freedom, and opportunity. One example would be the USA.
A rule by which the design of new electoral boundaries, must where possible, create electoral districts which have a majority population of some group which is a national minority
A state that possesses more than one core or dominant region, be it economic, political, or cultural.
Government policy that attempts to manage the economy by controlling the money supply and thus interest rates.
an alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without giving up either's autonomy or self-determination
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
Median line principle
according to the UNCLOS, the EEZ for maritime countries located closer to each other than 200 miles is located halfway in between.
urban center disproportionately larger than the 2nd largest city; dominates the country's social, political, and economic activities
Canadian territory that was given to the Inuit, in which they could live with autonomy, or the right to govern themselves.
German geographer who discussed geopolitics and created the organic theory which postulated that a country, which is an aggregate of organisms (people), would itself function and behave like an organism ... to survive, a state requires nourishment - in the global context, this means territory - to gain political power.
a group (ofen ethnic) which identifies with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
refers to the social movements for a particular group of people to separate from the dominant political institution under which they suffer
third wave of democratization
the defeat of dictatorships in South America to Eastern Europe, to some parts in Africa.
Informal term denoting the main areas in which the EU has worked since the Maastricht Treaty. 1. the traditional involvement in trade and other economic matters 2. cooperation in justice and home affairs 3. the desire to create a Common Foreign and Security Policy which is the most visionary and controversial aspect of the EU today
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
term used to imply that a group, usually a minority ethnic group, is a nation but does does not have a State of its own (ex. Kurds, Palestinians)
three or more countries agree to give up a degree of autonomy in order to pursue common goals. (ex. European Union)
A state's geographical shape, which can affect its spatial cohension and political viability.
A state that posses a roughly circular shape from which the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions. (ex. Poland)
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended.
UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
A code of maritime law approved by the United Nations in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles (22km) from shore and 200-nautical-mile-wide (370-km-wide) exclusive economic zones.
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