Know the 5 steps of the scientific method
Asking a question
Forming a hypothesis
Setting up an experiment
Record and analyze results
Draw a conclusion
Know the 7 characteristics of living things
Living things are made up of cells
Living things reproduce
Living things are based on a universal genetic code
Living things grow and develop
Living things obtain and use energy
Living things respond to their environment
Living things maintain a stable internal environment
Know why you only test one variable in an experiment
If more than one variable is used, it will not be known which variable actually caused the change in the experiment.
The science that seeks to understand the living world.
A body of facts that man has gathered by observing the physical universe.
The name given to the idea that living things come from nonliving materials.
A variable that is deliberately changed in an experiment.
The variable that is observed and changes in response to the manipulated variable.
Know the Parts of the Microscope
Microscope that shoots beams of electrons across the surface of an object.
Microscope that shoots beams of electrons through an object to get an image.
Data that is expressed as numbers obtained by counting or measuring
More descriptive data that involves characteristics that can't usually be counted
3 parts of a nucleotide
Sugar, Phosphate, Nitrogenous base
Four Major Groups of Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acids
Three subatomic particles, their charges, mass, and location
Protons - positive charge, mass of 1 amu, found in nucleus
Neutrons - neutral/no charge, mass of 1 amu, found in nucleus
Electrons - negative charge, mass of 1/1840, found surrounding the nucleus
Know how to find the atomic number and mass number, proton, electron, neutron numbers
The atomic number is the number of protons (and electrons) in an atom.
The mass number is the number of protons plus neutrons in an atom.
Attraction between molecules of different substances.
Attraction between molecules of the same substance.
When there are double bonds between carbons in a fatty acid molecule and there are not as many hydrogens surrounding the carbons.
When each of the carbon atoms in a fatty acid molecule has two hydrogen atoms attached to it.
When atoms give or take (transfer) electrons
When two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
Substance that does the dissolving in a solution
Substance that is dissolved in a solution
A pure substance that consists of one type of atom
The basic unit of matter
The total number of protons in an atom; the number given to each element
The total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Two or more elements put together chemically in specific proportions
3 parts of the Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. Cells come from the reproduction of pre-existing cells.
Powerhouse of the cell that creates cell energy
Controls what enters and leaves the cell
Stores DNA, controls most cell processes, and contains all information all information needed to make proteins
Stacks of flattened sacs that function to package, sort, process, and send out compounds in the cell
Makes proteins using coded instructions from the nucleus
Functions to make ribosomes
Watery material that is enclosed by the cell membrane and contains all the organelles
Barrel shaped bodies that function during cell division
Contains enzymes to produce lipid membranes and functions during drug detoxification
Contains digestive enzymes that break down food, bacteria, and worn out cell parts
Rigid outside covering that supports and protects the cell
Fluid-filled sacs for storage of food, water, and wastes
Materials of heredity made of DNA and protein
Controls what goes into and out of the nucleus
What is created when chromatin condenses.
Helps to keep the cells internal shape
Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached
Movement of a solvent through a semi-permeable membrane
Requires no energy from the cell to perform but does require a carrier protein
Requires cell energy to move substances across the cell membrane
Groups of cells that function together to perform a specific function
Groups of tissues that have a specific function.
Several organs working together to perform a specific function.
Organism that lacks a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
Organism that has a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
What is ATP? What does ATP stand for? Where is energy stored in an ATP? When is energy released from ATP?
A small, usable unit of energy
Most energy is stored between the 2/3rd phosphates
Energy is release when a phosphate breaks off
Photosynthesis Equation (know in words only)
Carbon dioxide plus water yields sugar (glucose) plus oxygen
Know how heterotrophs get their energy from the sun even though they can't make their own
Heterotrophs rely on other organisms for food. They eat both heterotrophs and autotrophs. Autotrophs store the suns energy so when heterotrophs eat them, they are getting their energy from the sun.
Stacks of thylakoids
An organism that cannot make its own food but relies on other organisms for their energy
An organism that is capable of capturing light energy and making their own food
Equation for Cell Respiration (in words only)
Oxygen plus sugar (glucose) yields carbon dioxide plus water
Know another name for Krebs cycle...why?
Citric acid cycle
Citric acid is the first compound made in the cycle
Know and describe the four main events of the cell cycle
Gap 1 (G1) phase - Cell grows and makes more organelles
Synthesis (S) phase - DNA is replicated
Gap 2 (G2) phase - Cell prepares for mitosis
M phase - Includes Mitosis and Cytokinesis which are the processes of cell division
Four phases of mitosis
A cell that is ready to begin mitosis
Proteins that regulate the cell cycle based on events inside the cell
Proteins that regulate the cell cycle based on the events that occur outside the cell
The study of heredity
Different forms of a gene
When two genes for an allele are identical
When an organism has two different alleles for the same trait
Pairs of chromosomes that occur when the male gives one set and the female gives another set
The genes an organism has that are expressed as capital and lowercase letters
The physical characteristics an organism has
A trait that is masked or hidden unless both are inherited
A trait that shows up even if the opposing trait is there
Occurs when a cross between two organisms results in the dominant trait showing up partially
Occurs when a cross between two organisms results in both traits showing up equally
The formation of the sperm cells.
The formation of the egg cells.
to pass through
to put together
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