Chapter 11 Margin Review QandA
Terms in this set (12)
In what ways did the early history of Islam reflect its Arabian origins?
1.Islam drew on an older Arab identification of Allah with Yahweh, the Jewish High God, and Arab self-identification as children of Abraham.
2.The Quran denounced the prevailing social practices of an increasingly prosperous Mecca and sought a return to the older values of Arab tribal life, like the sharing of goods ammongst tribes.
3.The message of the Quran also rejected the Arab tribal and clan structure, which was prone to war, feuding, and violence. Instead, the Quran sought to replace this structure with the umma, the community of all believers.
How does the core message of Islam compare with that of Judaism and Christianity?
1.Islam, like Judaism and Christianity, is monotheistic. Allah is the only God, the all-powerful Creator.
2.As "the Messenger of God," Muhammad presented himself in the tradition of earlier prophets like Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
3.Like the Jewish prophets and Jesus, Muhammad demanded social justice and laid out a prescription for its implementation.
4. Like Christiantiy, Islam develops a reward and punishment system for the "wicked" of this world, heaven and hell
In what ways was the rise of Islam revolutionary, both in theory and in practice?
1.The Islamic community, or umma, broke with the previous tribal structure defined by family and clan in Arabia, replacing it with a system in which membership was a matter of belief rather than birth, It becoems universal, if you are a Muslim.
2.Muhammad was not only a religious figure but also a political and military leader able to implement his vision of an ideal Islamic society.
3.Islam possessed no separate political and religious organizations, although tension between religious and political goals frequently generated conflict, THEOCRATIC.
4.Unlike Christianity, no professional clergy mediating between God and humankind emerged within Islam.
5.No distinction between religious and civil law existed in the Islamic world THEOCRATIC.
Why were Arabs able to construct such a huge empire so quickly?
1.For the first time, a shared faith in Islam allowed the newly organized state to mobilize the military potential of the entire Arab population.
2.The Byzantine and Persian empires were weakened by decades of war with each other and by internal revolts.
3.Merchant leaders of the new Islamic community wanted to capture the profitable trade routes of the Silk Roads.
4.Individual Arabs found in military expansion a route to wealth and social promotion.
5.Expansion provided a common task for the Arab community, which reinforced the fragile unity of the umma.
6.Arabs were motivated by a religious dimension, as many viewed the mission of empire in terms of jihad, bringing righteous government to the peoples they conquered.
What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam?
1.Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians could find familiar elements of their own faiths in Islam.
2.From the start, Islam was associated with the sponsorship of a powerful state.
3.Conquest called into question the power of old gods, while the growing prestige of the Arab Empire attracted many to Allah.
5.Although forced conversion was rare, living in an Islamic-governed state provided a variety of incentives for claiming Muslim identity, tax breaks for example.
6.In Islam, merchants found a religion friendly to commerce, and in the Arab Empire they enjoyed a huge and secure arena for trade.
7. It is easy to convert to islam. All one has to do is just follow the 5 pillars and you are in
What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Islam?
1.Sunnis held that the caliphs were rightful political and military leaders, selected by the Islamic community, while the Shia held that leadership in the Islamic world should derive from the line of Ali and his son Husayn, blood relatives of Muhammad.
2.For Sunni Muslims, religious authority in general emerged from the larger community, particularly from the religious scholars known as ulama. Meanwhile, the Shia invested their leaders, known as imams, with a religious authority that the caliphs lacked, allowing them alone to reveal the true meaning of the Quran and the wishes of Allah.
3.The Shia tradition included a messianic element that the Sunni tradition largely lacked.
In what ways were Sufi Muslims critical of mainstream Islam?
1.Sufism desiers an emotional ecstatic union with God
2.Sufism was sharply critical of the more scholarly and legalistic practitioners of the sharia; to Sufis, establishment teachings about the law and correct behavior did little to bring the believer into the presence of God.
3.Sufis held that many of the ulama of mainstream Islam had been compromised by their association with worldly and corrupt governments.
How did the rise of Islam change the lives of women?
1.The Quran banned female infanticide, gave women the right to own property and granted them rights of inheritance. It also allowed men to have sexual relations with consenting female slaves, but any children born of these unions were free, as was the mother once her owner died.
2.As the Arab Empire grew in size, the position of women became more limited. Women started to pray at home instead of in the mosque, and veiling and seclusion of women became standard practice among the upper and ruling classes. Other signs of tightening patriarchy, such as "honor killing" of women by their male relatives for violating sexual taboos which derived from local cultures, with no sanction in the Quran or Islamic law.
3.The Sufi practice of mystical union with God allowed a greater role for women than did mainstream Islam.
4.Islamic education, either in the home or in Quranic schools, allowed some women to become literate and a few to achieve higher levels of learning.
What similarities and differences can you identify in the spread of Islam to India, Anatolia, West Africa, and Spain?
1.Islam spread to India, Anatolia, and Spain in part through force of arms of Islamic armies, while Islam arrived in West Africa with Muslim traders.
2.Sufis facilitated conversions by accommodating local traditions, especially in India and Anatolia, but played little role in West Africa until at least the eighteenth century.
3.In India, West Africa, and Spain, Islam became one of several faiths within the wider culture, while in Anatolia it became the dominant faith.
Why was Anatolia so much more thoroughly Islamized than India?
1.Unlike India, far more Islamic Turkic-speaking peoples settled in Anatolia. This, coupled with the much smaller population of Anatolia and the massacres, enslavement, famine, and flight that occurred during the conquest, gave Turks a much more important position in Anatolia.
2.Anatolian society was more centralized than India, and the Christian Church and Byzantine imperial infrastructure in Anatolia were fatally weakened during the Turkic invasion. India's more decentralized civilization was better able to absorb the shock of external invasion.
3.The Turkish rulers of Anatolia built a new society that welcomed converts, and the cultural barriers to conversion were arguably less severe there than in India.
What makes it possible to speak of the Islamic world as a distinct and coherent civilization?
1.At the core of that civilization was a common commitment to Islam.
2.No group was more important in the transmission of Islamic beliefs and practices than the ulama, an "international elite" who created a system of education that served to bind together an immense and diverse civilization.
3.The pilgrimage to Mecca (the hajj) drew many thousands of Muslims to Mecca each year from all over the Islamic world.
4.The focus on learning the Quran in Arabic allowed Islam to communicate across a wide swath of the old world.
In what ways was the world of Islam a "cosmopolitan civilization"?
1.Muslim merchants plied the Silk Roads, Sea Roads, and Sand Roads of the Afro-Eurasian world, and the Islamic world promoted long-distance economic relationships by actively supporting a prosperous, highly developed, "capitalist" economy.
3.Islamic civilization also facilitated a substantial exchange of agricultural products and practices: sugarcane and cotton
4.Techniques for manufacturing paper also arrived in the Middle East from China and later spread from the Middle East to India and Europe.
5.Also Islam made original contributions to the world of learning: algebra, political science, astronomy, and optics