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Terms in this set (38)
Common features of models and theories
People's beliefs bout their capabilities, abilities to accomplish something, to produce designated levels of performance that influence events that affect their lives.
Efficacy beliefs are built on experience.
Largely learned and shaped by life experience.
Self efficacy is a prelude for planning for change.
A person's confidence in his or her ability to accomplish a behavior change may be more important than actual skill.
Counselor's role to promote self-efficacy
Help clients identify their past successes.
Encourage clients to make an inventory of their strengths and resources.
Look for opportunities to affirm their client's efforts, strengths and successes.
Benefits of theoretical behavior change theories and models
Road map for understanding behaviors.
Highlight variable to target in an intervention.
Supply rationale and direction for designing nutrition intervention influencing knowledge, attitudes, behaviors.
Provide tools and strategies.
Health belief model
Goal setting theory based on level of aspiration.
Framework for understanding individuals psychological readiness or intention to take a given health action.
In the health belief model, the client will or will not change depending on how they perceive:
severity of potential condition or disease.
Susceptibility to that condition or disease.
Benefits of taking preventative action.
perceived barriers to taking that action.
Ability to make the required changes (self-efficacy)
Social Cognitive Theory
A relationship exists between: behavior, cognitions and personal factors, and external environment
People thoughts and feelings
food, nutrition and health related knowledge and skills
factors external to the individual such as physical activity and social environments
Factors that are external to the individual
social support, social structure of the family.
Food production and marketing.
Accessibility to health food.
Means to be physically active
Change is more likely when
Short and long terms benefits are values.
There is positive support from family and friends.
Self efficacy is high (most important).
"The social learning theory"
Another name for cognitive theory since people learn by observing social interactions and media, personal factors, behavior and the environment and those interact continuously, each influencing each other
What kinds of fruits/vegetables do you eat at home? Any other places that you eat?
Do you help prepare the meals and snacks in your home?
Social expectations question
What are some of the reasons you and your friends eat fruit/vegetables?
Personal beliefs, thoughts question
What do you think would happen if you didn't eat fruits/vegetables?
Reasoned action and planned behavior theories
People's behavior are determined by their intentions which are in turn are influenced by attitudes, social norms and perception of control over the behavior.
Assumes that people make decisions in a reasonable manner.
Behavior is determined by the intention to act/change, which is determined by 3 major factors:
1. Attitude towards the behavior
2. Influence of social environment
3. Perceived behavioral control
Intention to take action is based on the following beliefs and feelings
I believe that taking this action will lead to outcomes I desire.
I perceive that the positive outcomes of taking this action outweigh the negative outcomes.
I have positive feelings about taking this action and taking action will make me feel good about myself.
people important to me think I should take this action.
I am confident that I can carry out the action, despite the difficulties.
Stages of change: Transtheoretical model
From a large comparison of behavior modification theories, showing that change is realized through a series of stages.
Ongoing, cyclical process.
2 Purposes of Transtheoretical Model
Helps understand to process of behavior change.
Helps to develop and select effective intervention strategies.
Two Mediators to Change
Decisional balance based on pros and cons.
Features of stages of change
Different strategies for each stage.
Motivation develops as perception of pros and cons changes.
New behavior only when self efficacy is high.
Inevitable relapses to previous stages.
Re-adoption of desirable behaviors.
Barriers to behavior change
Lack of motivation
Lack of support
Individual change consists of
Age, education, attitude, fear, self-efficacy, goals, opinions of important people, effort, time, trainability, demonstrations, environment, economic benefit, importance of advantages/disadvantages...
"ignorance is bliss"
Consciously intending not to change.
Do not see a problem
Stage of resistance, reluctance.
Blames other people for the problem
May be resigned.
Feels hopeless, tried and failed
What can counselors do in pre-contemplation stage?
Increase awareness of the need for change.
Personalize info on risks and benefits.
Help pt develop a reason for changing.
Validate the pt's experience.
Sitting on the fence.
Knows behavior is a problem but not ready yet.
When they are most likely to see a P.Dt.
Scared of barriers.
Need motivational activities rather than action-oriented.
What can counselors do in contemplation?
Remove ambivalence to engage in the change process.
Validate the patient's experience.
Clarify the patient's perceptions of the
pros and cons
of attempted weight loss.
Encourage further self-exploration.
Leave the door open for moving to preparation.
"I'm going to do it in the next weeks".
Getting ready to make change soon.
Feeling that taking action is important.
Might have started a few changes already.
Might have taken a few steps to prepare for such.
Pros > Cons
Counselors in Preparation
Need to sustain the energy for change throughout support.
Assist client to develop concrete goals and action plan strategies.
Praise the decision to change behavior.
Prioritize behavior change opportunities.
I dentify in problem solving.
Encourage small initial steps
Has taken steps towards making a change.
Clients are working on the goals and implementing the plans developed in the preparation stage
Counseling in Action Phase
Implement change and sustain momentum.
Increase self-efficacy for dealing with obstacles.
Combat feelings of loss and reiterate long-term benefits.
"I've done it, I need to keep doing it".
Continued commitment to sustain new behavior.
Has made a change and has been successfully working on it for the past 6 months to 5 years.
Clients might still be insecure and nervous about being able to make changes.
Need to work actively on modifying the environment to maintain the changed behavior and prevent relapse.
Counseling in Maintenance
Sustain change and accept relapses
Usually in the first 3 - 6 months.
Returned to old behavior + feelings of failure and self doubt
Counseling in Relapse
Help clients to accept.
Help clients identify the decision or action which got them into the high risk situation.
Recovery requires re-learning skills from earlier stages and learning new skills to get back on the horse
This set is often in folders with...
Behavior Change Theory
Stages of Change
Cognitive behavioral therapy
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