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Mitral stenosis tx
Drugs that slow the heart rate (beta-blockers, CCB's) to increase LV filling time, anticoagulants to decrease thromboembolytic risk.
Pharmacotherapeutic tx for CHRONIC (but not acute) Mitral Regurgitation or Aortic Insufficiency
IV vasodilators (reduce peripheral vascular resistance and favour forward flow.
Four right-to-left shunts in Congenital Heart Disease
Tetralogy of Fallot, Transposition of great arteries, Truncus arteriosus, Tricuspid valve atresia
Tricuspid Valve Atresia
Complete absence of the tricuspid valve w/ undersized or absent right ventricle
Ventricular Septal Defects
Wall between the L & R ventricles defective, allowing blood to move left to right
Most common causes of mitral stenosis
Calcification of valve or chronic rheumatic disease is the etiology
Aortic valvular insufficiency progression
LV Volume overload --> LV Pressure overload -->LVH --> LCHF
Mitral valve prolapse anatomical indicator
Hollow at the lower part of the breastbone, called pectus excavatum
Disease associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
Cardiac pressure effects of Mitral Regurgitation & Aortic Stenosis
Aorta: down, LA: up, LV: up, Systemic BP: down
Auscultatory findings in Mitral Stenosis
Opening snap, then a rumbling diastolic murmur ending with presystolic crescendo
Common etiologies of chronic aortic insufficiency
Marfan's, congenital bicuspid aortic valve, chronic rheumatic heart dz
Atrial septal defects induce what overloads on which side of the heart, and with what result?
Both volume & Pressure on the right--> RVH & pulmonary edema--> CHF
Ventricular, systemic & pulmonary BP effects of VSDs
LV: increased preload, RV: pressure overload, Systemic BP drops, pulmonary BP rises
A single artery from the two ventricles gives rise to both the aorta and pulmonary trunk
Failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle
CAD: Coronary Artery Disease --> CHD Coronary Heart Disease
Aortic insufficiency signs and symptoms
SAD, also Bounding pulse, low diastolic pressure and increased pulse pressure, De Musset's sign (head nodding in time with the heart beat), Quincke's sign (pulsation of the capillary bed in the nail)
Tetralogy of Fallot dx
"Coeur-en-sabot" (boot-like) heart on X-ray, low blood O2 saturation, cyanosis
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