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Both Democritus and Dalton suggested that matter is made up of atoms.


Dalton's atomic theory stated that matter is mostly empty space.


Dalton thought that atoms were a solid featureless ball..


Dalton's atomic theory was based on careful measurements and extensive research.


There are no instruments powerful enough to magnify atoms so that they can be seen.


Faraday believed that the structure of the atom was related to electricity..


The smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element is a(n) ____.


Which of the following is NOT a part of Dalton's atomic theory?
a. All elements are composed of atoms.
b. Atoms are always in motion.
c. Atoms are solid.
d. Atoms are featureless.

a. All elements are composed of atoms.

Rutherford's atomic theory included which idea?

Electrons float around a nucleus that contains protons

The person responsible for coming up with the name "atom" was _________.


According to Schrodinger's model electrons are found in fixed orbits around the nucleus.


region of high probability of finding an electron

atomic orbital

In Bohr's model of the atom, where are the electrons and protons located?

The electrons move in orbitals around the protons, which are at the center of the atom.

How does the energy of an electron change when the electron moves closer to the nucleus?

It decreases.

What is the maximum number of d orbitals in a principal energy level?


What is the maximum number of orbitals in the p sublevel?


How do the energy differences between the higher energy levels of an atom compare with the energy differences between the lower energy levels of the atom?

They are smaller in magnitude than those between lower energy levels.

The quantum mechanical model of the atom ____.

involves the probability of finding an electron in a certain position

In the Bohr model of the atom, an electron in an orbit has a fixed ____.


The energy required to move an electron up an energy level is called _________, and the energy released when an electron jumps down a level is called ________.


A proton is a subatomic particle carrying a charge equal to but opposite that of an electron.


Which part of an atom has a mass approximately equal to 1/2000 of the mass of a common hydrogen atom?


The mass of a neutron is

about the same as that of a proton.

The nucleus of most atoms is composed of

tightly packed protons and neutrons.

Protons and neutrons strongly attract when they

are very close together.

Subatomic particle discovered during work with cathode ray tubes


Subatomic particle that has mass nearly equal to that of a proton, but carries no electrical charge


Atom's central region; made up of protons and neutrons


Subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom


Subatomic particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus


arrangement of electrons around atomic nucleus

electron configuration

each orbital has at most two electrons

Pauli exclusion principle

What is the next atomic orbital in the series 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p?


According to the aufbau principle, ____.

electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first

If three electrons are available to fill three empty 2p atomic orbitals, how will the electrons be distributed in the three orbitals?

one electron in each orbital

Stable electron configurations are likely to contain ____.

filled energy sublevels

What is the electron configuration of potassium?

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1

Elements like argon and krypton are inert because all of their electron shells are:


What atom is represented in 1s2 2s2 2p2?


What atom is represented in 1s2 2s2 2p6?


The atomic number of an element is the total number of which particles in the nucleus?


An element has an atomic number of 76. The number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom of the element are ____.

76 protons and 76 electrons

Isotopes of the same element have different ____.

numbers of neutrons

Isotopes of the same element have different ____.

mass numbers

The mass number of an element is equal to ____.

the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does an atom with atomic number 50 and mass number 125 contain?

50 protons, 50 electrons, 75 neutrons

How do the isotopes hydrogen-1 and hydrogen-2 differ?

Hydrogen-2 has one neutron; hydrogen-1 has none.

What unit is used to measure weighted average atomic mass?


Which of the following equals one atomic mass unit?
a. the mass of one electron
b. the mass of one helium-4 atom
c. the mass of one carbon-12 atom
d. one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom

d. one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom

According to J.J. Thompson's hypothesis, what is a cathode ray?

a stream of negative particles

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