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Organs of the Digestive System
Terms in this set (83)
where does lymph drainage from the abdominal part of the esophagus go?
left gastric LNs ==> celiac LNs
location of cardiac sphincter?
junction of esophagus with the stomach
*also called lower esophageal sphincter
what type of sphincter is the cardiac sphincter considered?
functional sphincter (not anatomical)
what are the numerous folds within the stomach called?
what is the pyloric sphincter?
dense band of muscle located at the junction of the pyloric region of the stomach and the duodenum
where does lymph from the superior 2/3 of the stomach drain?
gastric LNs via the right and left gastric vessels
where does lymph from the fundus and superior part of the body of the stomach drain?
pancreaticosplenic LNs via short gastric arteries and left gastro-omental vessels
where does lymph from the right 2/3 of the inferior third of the stomach drain?
pyloric LNs via right gastro-omental vessels
where does lymph from the left 1/3 of the greater curvature of the stomach drain?
how many anatomical lobes can the liver be divided into?
what two lobes of the liver can be see from an anterior view?
right and left lobes
location of ligamentum teres hepatis?
inferior border of the falciform ligament
what is the ligamentum teres hepatis?
remnant of the umbilical vein in the fetus
what is the falciform ligament a part of?
portion of ventral mesentery
what lobes make up the left functional lobe of the liver?
- left lobe
- caudate lobe
- quadrate lobe
what make up the right functional lobe of the liver?
the right lobe
what is the porta hepatis the point of entry for?
- portal vein
- hepatic artery proper
- common hepatic duct
how much of the lymph entering the thoracic duct comes from the liver?
between 1/4 and 1/2
where do the lymphatics of the liver occur as superficial lymphatics?
in the subperitoneal fibrous capsule of the liver (Glisson capsule)
what do the deep lymphatics of the liver accompnany?
ramifications of the portal triad and hepatic veins
where is most of the lymph of the liver formed?
perisinusoidal spaces (space of Disse)
where does most of the lymph of the liver drain?
to the deep lymphatics in the surrounding intralobular portal triads
route of superficial lymphatics from the anterior aspects of the diaphragmatic and visceral surfaces of the liver?
porta hepatis ==> hepatic LNs ==> celiac LNs ==> cisterna chyli
where are the hepatic lymph nodes located?
along the hepatic vessels and ducts in the lesser omentum
route of superficial lymphatics from the posterior aspects of the diaphragmatic and visceral surface of the liver?
- bare area of the liver ==> phrenic LNs
- bare area of liver ==> deep lymphatics ==> posterior mediastinal LNs ==> right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct
where does lymph from the posterior surface of the left lobe of the liver go?
toward esophageal hiatus ==> left gastric LNs
where does lymph from the anterior central diaphragmatic surface of the liver along the falciform ligament go?
where does lymph from the round ligament of the liver go?
to the umbilicus and lymphatics of the anterior abdominal wall
what lymph nodes do lymph vessels from the bile duct pass to? efferent vessels from these nodes pass to which nodes?
- cystic LNs
- omental foramen LNs
- hepatic LNs
- celiac LNs
location of cystic lymph nodes?
near the neck of the gallbladder
how does lymphatic drainage from the gallbladder travel?
cystic LNs ==> hepatic LNs ==> celiac LNs
location of the head of the pancreas?
curve of the duodenum
what organ is the tail of the pancreas associated with?
what vessels directly drain bile from the right and left lobes of the liver?
right and left hepatic ducts
what vessel is formed by the right and left hepatic ducts?
common hepatic duct
what vessel drains bile from the gallbladder?
what vessel is formed by the cystic duct and common hepatic duct?
common bile duct
where do the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct empty into?
descending duodenum at the major duodenal papilla
where does the accessory pancreatic duct empty into?
descending duodenum at minor duodenal papilla proximal to the main pancreatic duct and common bile duct
which lymph nodes do most pancreatic lymph vessels drain to? where might they also drain to?
- pancreaticosplenic LNs
- pyloric LNs
location of pancreaticosplenic lymph nodes?
along splenic artery
where do efferent vessels from the pancreaticosplenic and pyloric lymph nodes drain to?
hepatic LNs ==> superior mesenteric or celiac LNs
where do the splenic lymph vessels leave the lymph nodes?
in the splenic hilum
where do the splenic lymph vessels drain to?
pancreaticosplenic LNs ==> celiac LNs
where are the pancreaticosplenic lymph nodes located?
posterior and superior border of the pancreas
what is the small intestine divided into?
location of duodenum?
fixed to the dorsal body wall
how many portions does the duodenum have?
what are the transverse circular folds of the small intestine called?
where does the duodenum end?
at the duodenojejunal junction
where do the anterior lymph vessels of the duodenum drain?
pancreaticoduodenal LNs ==> pyloric LNs ==> celiac LNs
location of pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes?
superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
location of pyloric lymph nodes?
along gastroduodenal artery
where do the posterior lymphatic vessels drain?
superior mesenteric LNs ==> celiac LNs
what are the three groups of duodenal lymph nodes?
- pancreaticoduodenal LNs
- pyloric LNs
- superior mesenteric LNs
together, how long are the jejunum and ileum?
how long is the jejunum?
proximal 8 ft of jejunum and ileum (20 ft)
which has thicker walls, jejunum or ileum?
where does the ileum empty into large intestine?
what is the ileocecal valve?
valvular structure to prevent material from returning to the ileum from the large intestine
where are the cecum and vermiform appendix located in relation to the ileocecal valve?
what are lacteals?
specialized lymphatic vessels in the intestinal villi that absorb fat
what type of fluid do lacteals secrete?
where do lacteals empty their fluid?
walls of jejunum and ileum
route of lymph drainage of jejunum and ileum?
juxta-intestinal LNs ==> mesenteric LNs ==> superior central LNs ==> superior mesenteric LNs
location of juxta-intestinal lymph nodes?
close to intestinal wall
location of mesenteric lymph nodes?
scattered among the arterial arcades
location of superior central lymph nodes?
proximal part of superior mesenteric artery
how do lymph vessels from the terminal ileum drain?
follow the ileal branch of the ileocolic artery to ileocolic LNs
what are haustrations (haustra)?
sacculations of the large intestine
are haustrations present in the rectum?
what are taenia coli?
three longitudinal bands of muscle found on the surface of the large intestine
are taenia coli visible on the rectum?
what are epiploic appendages?
fat filled sacs of peritoneum associated with large intestine
where are the rectum and anal canal located?
what are anal columns? what do they contain?
- vertical columns in the anal canal
- branches of the rectal vessels
what is the internal anal sphincter an expansion of?
circular smooth muscle
what is the external anal sphincter composed of?
skeletal (striated) muscle
lymphatic drainage of the cecum and appendix?
mesoappendix LNs or ileocolic LNs ==> superior mesenteric LNs
lymphatic drainage from descending colon and sigmoid colon?
epicolic and paracolic LNs ==> intermediate colic LNs (along left colic artery) ==> inferior mesenteric LNs
where does lymph from the left colic flexure (splenic flexure) drain to?
superior mesenteric LNs
what makes up the portal triad?
- portal vein
- hepatic artery proper
- common bile duct
where do pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes) originate from? where do they terminate?
- originate from S2-S4 spinal cord levels
- synapse on ganglia embedded in the descending and sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, and genitals or ganglia in the inferior hypogastric plexus
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