IB Biology Unit 4 (11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4)
Terms in this set (37)
Antagonistic Pairs for Muscles
Biceps anf triceps are an example of muscles that work in an antagonistic set. The bicep is the flexor causing the elbow to bend, where the tricep is the extensor causing the elbow to straighten.
Purpose of Bones and Skeleton
Bones provide the body with a structure and allow points for muscles to attach.
Internal bones, found in most vertebrate animals such as humans.
External bones, not made out of bones but a material called chitin. This is found on animals such as some insects like crabs.
Bone-to-bone joints where there is a self-contained capsule that contains lubricant called synovial fluid.
Monoclonal antibodies. Created with B-Cells (Ex: from a mouse) and cancer cells. B-Cells + Cancer Cells = Hybridoma AKA Monoclonal Antibody.
Pros: Are identical, can be produced in large #'s, highly specific, immortal and can be cloned.
Cons: Some peoples immune system react against foreign materials (Ex: mouse protein). Provide disastrous side effects.
Histamines and Allergic Response
A person gets an allergic response when they form antibodies to harmless substances. Antibodies cause the release of histamines which from mast cells which causes Hypersensitive symptoms. Histamines --> Mast Cells --> Hypersensitive symptoms!
1. T-Cells identify the allergen
2. B-Cells differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies
3. Antibodies bind to specific receptors on the surface of mast cells
4. Mast cells binds the allergen when it encounters it again
5. Mast cells releases histamines = symptoms of an allergic reaction
Body contains many Lymphocytes which are capable of creating a specific antibody. There are few in bloodstream so they are able to clone very quickly
Proteins produced by the body in response to a specific pathogen and its antigen. Produced by Lymphocytes called Plasma cells which clone themselves.
Injections of antibodies. Vaccines contains weakened or pieces of a pathogen. This causes a primary response = specific immunity, ready for secondary response because of memory cells.
Organism that cause diseases
Protein found on plasma membrane that cat as ID for the cell.
Occurs within testes. Production of sperm (in seminiferous tubules), each sperm has the chance of undergoing mitosis or meiosis at any time. Sperm production starts at puberty and is continuous throughout life, with millions being produced per day.
Spermatogonia Mitosis vs meiosis
If a sperm undergoes mitosis 2 haploid cells will be created. If a sperm undergoes meiosis 4 perm cells will be produced.
Insects don't have kidneys instead they use Malpighian tubules. Any waster like: N wastes, excess water or salt ions can enter and exit through tubules.
N Waste tied to habitat
Mammals ---> Excreate urea ---> Must be diluted by water (To toxic) (Medium energy)
Fish ---> Excreate Ammonia ---> Surrounded by water therefore ammonia is diluted (Little every)
Birds ---> Excreate uric acid ---> must store as safe solid very energy expensive (High energy)
Role of ADH
Secreted from pituitary gland, circulates in the bloodstream, targeting kidneys collecting ducts. When ADH is present the ducts are permeable to water and water moves by osmosis into medullas.
If ADP wasn't present ducts impermeable water stay which results in more diluted Urine.
Filters water, salt ions and glucose by ultrafiltration. Kidneys are made up of many filtration units called nephrons. Each nephron is made up of a:
1. capillary bed (Glomerulus) which filters materials from the blood.
2. A bowman's capsule.
3. loop of Henle.
4. Another capillary bed called peritubular capillary bed. that surrounds the three above.
Animals whose internal tissues have a different solute concentration compared with their environment. (High energy) most animals
Animals whose internal tissues have a same solute concentration compared with their environment.
When a muscle isn't contracting it means it is being covered by a protein called tropomyosin.
Protein that frequently binds to to tropomyosin. Troponin have binding sites for Ca2+ ions where flood into the sarcomere, bind to troponin and stimulate the tropomyosin to slid and open the binding sites.
Base unit of muscle tissue.
Base unit made up of muscle cells made up of many sarcomeres.
Sarcomere sliding filament theory
1. Myosin heads flex by using ATP. Change position.
2. Myosin heads attach to exposed binding sites on actin. Form cross bridge
3. As myosin for cross bridge ADP is released and the myosin heads bend because of energy.
4. Myosin binds to ATP which allows detachment of myosin from actin.
During pregnancy a positive feedback loop is used for contractions. Compared to the previous one the next will be more forceful and frequent. Oxytocin is the hormone used to signal the contractions. Oestrogen produces Oxytocin.
1. Helps maintain highly vascular tissue of endometrium. 2.Surpasses contractions of the smooth muscle of the uterus. (Uterus is highly muscular for birth contractions)
1. Encourages muscle growth of the uterus.
2.Antagonizes action of progesterone to suppress uterine contractions.
3. Stimulates memory glad development late in pregnancy in prep for milk production.
4. induces production of oxytocin receptors in uterine muscle late in pregnancy.
1. Form from the trophoblast layer of the blastocyst.
2. Forms from tissue from both the embryo (The mother)
3. The foetal side has a protective sheath called the umbilical cord. (Brings oxygenated blood to fetus.
4. Umbilical vein brings de-oxygenated blood to mother.
Fertilization and implantation
1. Sperm are ejaculated into female, some sperm find their way to the cervical opening some don't. Some enter fallopian tubes.
2. Fallopian tubes are the place of fertilization.
3. It takes many sperm to break the zona pellucida.
4. Sperm donate a set of haploid chromosomes same as egg donates haploid. Haploid + Haploid = Diploid.
pros: Protection of youth before and often after birth. High quality offspring.
cons: Low #'s of offspring
more energy invested
resider health wise for the mother.
Mother lays eggs to allow males to fertilize outside of body.
pros: High number of offspring
parents don't need to be involved
cons: No protections from predators, diseases, change in environment