20 terms

Intro to genetics

STUDY
PLAY
genetics
the study of heredity
true-breeding
when crossed with organisms of the similar traits, results in offspring which looks like the P1 generation
traits
Specific characteristics that one can see or measure
Genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Alleles
different forms of the same gene
Hybrids
the offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
P
parent generation
F1
The offspring of the parental generation (first filial)
F2
the second filial generation; offspring resulting from the crossing of individuals of the F1 generation
homozygous
having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci (examples: HH or hh)
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait (example Hh)
dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
recessive
trait or an allele that is expressed only when two alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
segregation principle
the understanding that alleles separate at some point in the process of reproduction
gametes
reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells (only 1 allele of each gene)
somatic cells
all the cells of your body except your sex cells
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
Punnett Square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
probability
The likelihood that a particular event will occur