AP Human - Chapter 13
Terms in this set (32)
CFCs Synthetic organic compounds first created in the 1950s and used primarily as refrigerants and as propellants. The role of CFCs in the destruction of the ozone layer led to the signings of an international agreement (Montreal Protocol)
Geological epoch defined by atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen to acknowledge the central role humans play in shaping the Earth's environment
The primeval supercontinent, hypothesized by Wegener, that broke apart and formed the continents and ocean as we know them today
Large pieces of rock that form portions of the Earth's mantle and crust and which are in motion
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
Loss of diversity through a failure to produce new species
Mass destruction of most species
Pacific Ring of Fire
Ocean-girdling zone of crustal instability, volcanism, and earthquakes resulting from the tectonic activity along plate boundaries in the region
The most recent epoch of the Late Cenozoic Ice Age, beginning about 1.8 million years ago marked by as many as 20 glaciations and interglaciations of which the current warm phase, the Holocene epoch, has witnessed the rise of human civilization
A period of global cooling during which continental ice sheets and mountain glaciers expand
Warm periods during an ice age
The most recent glacial period of the Pleistocene, enduring about 100,000 years and giving way, beginning about 18,000 years ago, to the current interglacial, the Holocene
The current interglaciation period, extending from 10,000 years ago to the present on the geologic time scale
Little Ice Age
Temporary but significant cooling period between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries; accompanied by wide temperature fluctuations, droughts, and storms, causing famines and dislocation
The widely used analogy describing the blanket-like effect of the atmosphere in the heating of the Earth's surface; shortwave insolation passes through the "glass" of the atmospheric "greenhouse", heats the surface, is converted to long-wave radiation that cannot penetrate the "glass", and thereby results in trapping heat, which raises the temperature inside the "greenhouse"
The threat to environmental security by human activity such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping
Resources that can regenerate as they are exploited
Subterranean, porous, water-holding rocks that provide millions of wells with steady flows of water
Blanket of gases surrounding the Earth and located some 350 miles above the Eath's surface
A growing environmental peril whereby acidified rainwater severely damages plant and animal life; caused by the oxides of sulfure and nitogen that are released into the atmosphere when coal, oil, and natural gas are burned, especially in major manufacturing zones
Cycle whereby natural processes and human activity consume atmospheric oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and the Earth's forests and other flora, through photosynthesis, consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
The wearing away of the land surface by wind and moving water
Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging from municipal garbage to sewage sludge; agricultural refuse; and mining residues
Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with floors made of materials to treat seeping liquids and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill.
Hazardous waste causing danger from chemicals and infectious organisms
Hazardous waste-emitting radiation from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons factories, and nuclear equipment in hospitals and industry.
The total variety of plants and animals species in a particular place
Rare Earth Elements
Seventeen chemical elements that commonly occur together but are difficult to separate. They are commonly used to make high-tech electronics and weapons systems.
The layer in the upper atmosphere located between 30 and 45 kilometers above the Earth's surface where stratospheric ozone is most densely concentrated. The ozone layer acts as a filter for the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
The first international convention aimed at addressing the issue of ozone depletion. Held in 1985, the Vienna Convention was the predecessor to the Montreal Protocol
An international agreement signed in 1987 by 105 countries and the European Community (now European Union). The protocol called for a reduction in the production and consumption of chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) of 50 percent by 2000. Subsequent meetings in London (1990) and Copenhagen (1992) accelerated the timing of CFC phaseout, and a worldwide complete ban has been in effect since 1996.