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HB: Unit 8 - Evolution of Populations vs. Creationism
Terms in this set (70)
What is God's work in creating the universe our of nothing called?
What is a change in species over time; a process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors called?
What are the 4 results of evolutionary thinking?
1. Man is not responsible to God
2. Man no longer needs a savior
3. Man is a highly evolved animal
4. Man's religion should be scientism
Who developed the classification still in use today?
Who is the scientist that proposed that all organisms evolved toward perfection and complexity and structures become larger or smaller with use or disuse?
Who proposed that species shared ancestors and suggested that earth is much older than 6,000 years?
Who proposed that all organisms descended from a common ancestor and moved from less complex to more complex?
What is catastrophism?
Natural disasters have shaped land forms and cause species to become extinct
What is gradualism?
Changes in landforms resulted from slow changes over a long period of time
What is uniformitarianism?
The geologic processes that shape earth are uniform through time
Where did Charles Darwin do his research?
The Galapagos Islands
What are the differences in the physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals?
Give a brief explanation of the tortoises that Darwin observed.
Saddlebacked tortoises with long necks lived in tall plant areas while domed tortoises with short necks lived in areas with short plants
Give a brief explanation of the finches that Darwin observed.
Finches with strong/thick beaks lived in an environment with hard shelled nuts, while finches with more delicate beaks live in an environment with softer seeds and fruits
What is a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment called?
What is the process by which humans change a species through breeding?
What is the ability of a trait to be passed down through generations called?
What is the struggle for survival?
When populations are faced with challenges like limited resources or disease
What is the process of the environment selecting certain traits in nature to continue called?
What are the 4 principles of natural selection?
4. Descent with modification
What are fossils?
Traces of organisms that lived in the past
What are some ways that fossils can form?
- natural cast
What are perimineralization fossils?
Occurs when minerals carried by water are deposited around a hard structure
What are amber-preserved fossils?
Organisms that become trapped in tree resin that hardens into amber after the tree gets buried underground
What are trace fossils?
Record activity of an organism - nests, burrows, imprints of leaves, footprints
What are natural cast fossils?
Forms when flowing water removes all of the original bone or tissue, leaving an impression in sediment
What 4 pieces of evidence did Darwin cite?
1. Fossils: more primitive fossils are found on the bottom layers of rock
2. Embryology: some species that look different as adults, but resemble each other in embryo
3. Anatomy: looked at body parts
4. Geography: island species resemble those on nearby islands
What are features that are similar in structure, but appear in different organisms and have different functions?
What are remnants of organs or structures that had functions in an early ancestor called?
The more closely related two organisms are the more closely what is related?
Genetic variation is helpful for sustaining a population, because there are more what?
Alleles are stored in what?
A gene pool
Allele frequency are what?
How common an allele is in a population
What are e two sources of genetic variation?
What is a mutation?
A change in a DNA sequence which can form a new allele
What is recombination?
New allele combinations can form during meiosis when each parent's alleles are arranged in new ways
What is gene flow?
The movement of alleles into or out of a population
When a population is greatly reduced in size due to chance what occurs?
What is genetic drift?
The change in allele frequencies due to chance
Genetic drift greatly reduces the genetic what of a population?
What are the two main types of genetic drift?
1. The bottleneck effect
2. The founder effect
What is the bottleneck effect?
Genetic drift that occurs after an event greatly reducing the population size
What is the founder effect?
Genetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area
What are some problems of genetic drift?
- population loses genetic variation
- individuals won't be able to adapt to changing environments
What is sexual selection?
A process in which certain traits increase mating
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
A state in which genotype frequencies stay the same from generation to generation
What is the equation for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
List and describe 5 factors required to be in equilibrium?
1. Very large population
2. No emigration or immigration
3. No mutations
4. Random mating
5. No natural selection
What are five factors that lead to evolution?
1. Genetic drift
2. Gene flow
4. Sexual selection
5. Natural selection
When members of different populations no longer mate successfully with one another?
What is speciation?
The rise of 2 or more species from 1 existing one
What are the three barriers that cause isolation of populations?
1. Behavioral barriers
2. Geographic barriers
3. Temporal barriers
What are behavioral barriers?
Isolation caused by differences in courtship or mating behaviors
What are geographic barriers?
Physical barriers that divide a population
Ex. River, mountain
What are temporal barriers?
Isolation that prevents reproduction from occurring because of timing
Briefly explain radiometric dating.
A technique that uses the natural decay rate of unstable isotopes, like the isotope of carbon; C-14. The half-life of carbon 14 is 5,730 years. You then measure the amount of C-14 left
What is the geologic time scale?
A graphic representation of the history of earth organized by major events
What are eras?
Last tens to hundreds of millions of years and consists of two or more periods
What are periods?
The most commonly used units of time on the geologic time scale. Lasting tens of millions of years. Each period is associated with a particular type of rock system
What are epochs?
The smallest units of geologic time that last several million years
What are the three eras?
What is the Cenozoic era?
What is the Mesozoic era?
What is the Paleozoic era?
According to creationists, the earth is how old?
4.6 billion years
According to young- earth creationists, the earth is how old?
What is a group of organisms that are similar and can mate called?
What is a group of species that inhabit the same area called?
Defend your own viewpoint on the debate of evolution vs creationism.
Explain what you learned about natural selection from the beak lab and peppered moth lab.
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