Economics Today (the Macro View): Chapter 2
Terms in this set (21)
A situation in which the ingredients for producing the things that people desire are insufficient to satisfy all wants at a zero price
Any activity that results in the conversion of resources into products that can be used in consumption
The natural resources that are available from nature. Land as a resource includes location, original fertility and mineral deposits, topography, climate, water, and vegetation
Productive contributions of humans who work
All manufactured resources, including buildings, equipment, machines, and improvements to land that are used for production
The accumulated training and eduction of workers
The component of human resources that performs the functions of raising capital; organizing, managing, and assembling other factors of production; making basic business policy decisions; and taking risks
All things from which individuals derive satisfaction or happiness
Goods that are scarce, for which the quantity demanded exceeds the quantity supplied at a zero price
Mental or physical labor or assistance purchased by consumers. Examples are the assistance of physicians, lawyers, dentists, repair personnel, housecleaners, educators, retailers, and wholesalers; items purchased or used by consumers that do not have physical characteristics
The highest-valued, next-best alternative that must be sacrificed to obtain something or to satisfy a want
Production possibilities curve (PPC)
A curve representing all possible combinations of maximum outputs that could be produced, assuming a fixed amount of productive resources of a given quality.
The total pool of applied knowledge concerning how goods and services can be produced
The case in which a given level of inputs is used to produce the maximum output possible. Alternatively, the situation in which a given output is produced at minimum cost.
Any point below the production possibilities curve, at which the use of resources is not generating the maximum possible output.
Law of increasing additional cost
The fact that the opportunity cost of additional units of a good generally increases as people attempt to produce more of that good. This accounts for the bowed-out shape of the production possibilities curve
The use of goods and services for personal satisfaction
The organization of economic activity so that what each person (or region) consumes is not identical to what that person (or region) produces. An individual may specialize, for example, in law or medicine. A nation may specialize in the production of coffee, e-book readers, or digital cameras
The ability to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost compared to other producers
The ability to produce more units of a good or service using a given quanitity of labor or resource inputs. Equivalently, the ability to produce the same quantity of a good or service using fewer units of labor resource inputs
Division of labor
The segregation of resources into different specific tasks. For instance, one automobile worker puts on bumpers, another doors, and so on
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