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A & P II, Skarbek-college of dupage; chapter 18 kimkwas

Nervous system:

operates by electrical nerve impulses-action potentials

Action potentials:

conducted along axons, through neurotransmitters

Electrical nerve impulses:

quick acting impulses with short duration

Endocrine system:

operated by use of chemicals transported through blood


Chemicals transported through the blood

Chemical transporter:

usually takes hours or days to achieve response


substance that is typically produced in one part of the body, but acts in another part

Exocrine glands:

Uses ducts to secrete their substances

Endocrine glands:

secretes the substance through interstitial fluid, which diffuses into capillaries


hormones that act on neighboring cells


hormones that work on the same cell that created/secreated them

Target cells:

cells that are awaiting specific hormones

Circulating hormones:

Circulates through blood and are eliminated by liver & kidney

Lipid soluble hormones:

steroids, thyroid & nitric oxide

Nitric oxide:

____ ___ is a Signaling hormone & neurotransmitter secreted from synaptic end bulbs

Water soluble hormones:

catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, melatonin


chemically related neurotransmitters; epinephrine, norepenephrine, dopamine

Glycoprotein hormones:

proteins with carbohydrates attached

Water soluble hormones:

____ ____ hormones circulate through blood freely w/no special transport

Lipid soluble hormones:

require transport proteins to move to correct location


a water soluble hormone that has to be injected


pituitary gland attaches to it by the stalk -infundibulum

Anterior pituitary gland:

aka adenohypophysis

Pituitary :

The ____ gland is under the control of the hypothalamus.


Produces two types of hormones, which control anterior pituitary gland

Two hormones produced by hypothalamus:

releasing and inhibiting hormones


human growth hormone

Human growth hormone:

promotes tissue growth by promoting synthesis of IGF's


Insulin like growth factors


thyroid stimulating hormone

TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone):

stimulates production of T3 & T4 hormones of the thyroid gland


follicle stimulating hormone


____ hormone causes the secretion of estrogen; initiates development of ovarian follicles

Follicle-stimulating hormone:

stimulates sperm production


luteinizing hormone

Luteinizing hormone:

triggers ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone & estrogen




initiates/maintains milk secretion in lactating women


adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTH (adrenocorticotropic):

controls production & secretion of adrenal glands


melanocyte stimulating hormone

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone:

not known in humans; in amphibians it increases skin pigmentation

Posterior pituitary gland:


Posterior pituitary gland:

only stores hormones that are made by hypothalamus


causes uterus contractions & milk ejection

Antidiuretic hormone:

causes kidneys to reabsorb more water; decreases urine production

Thyroid gland:

just inferior to larynx; composed of right & left lateral lobes





T3 & T4:

lipid soluble hormones; diffuse through plasma membrane into interstitial fluid

T3 & T4:

produced by follicular cells and iodine

Thyroid hormones:

Increases BMR, which stimulates use of oxygen to make ATP

Thyroid gland:

stimulates protein synthesis; increases lipolysis


breakdown of lipids

Accelerates body growth:

one function of thyroid hormones


Parafollicular cells produce and secrete this; releases when blood calcium is too high

Parathyroid glands:

On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland

Parathyroid gland:

Decreases loss of calcium & magnesium in urine

Parathyroid gland:

promotes formation of calcitrol-active form of vitamin D in body

Adrenal cortex:

more superficial area which makes up bulk of adrenal gland


major hormone of mineral corticoids


promotes excretion of hydrogen ions in urine, removing acids from body


weak sex hormones; contribute to secondary sex characteristics

Adrenal medulla:

smaller central portion of the adrenal gland

Chromaffin cells:

produces hormones of the adrenal medulla

Four cells of pancreatic islets:

alpha, beta, delta & F cells

Alpha cells:

produces glucagon

Alpha cells:

increases blood glucose by acting on the liver

Beta cells:

Produces insulin

Beta :

_____ cells decrease blood glucose.

Delta cells:

Found in the Islets of Langerhans, these cells produces somatostatin

Delta cells:

inhibits release of insulin and glucagon; slows absorption of substances from GI tract

F cells:

Produces pancreatic polypeptides

F cells:

a polypeptide hormone, produced in the brain and pancreas, that inhibits secretion of somatotropin from the hypothalamus and inhibits insulin production by the pancreas.

Thyroid hormones:

Synthesize T3 & T4 by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine

Peptide hormones:

_____ hormones are smaller chains of amino acids.

Protein hormones:

longer chains of amino acids

Glycoprotein hormones:

proteins w/a carbohydrate attached

Parathyroid Hormones:

Increases blood calcium levels


Increases blood glucose level


A polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels


initiates and maintains milk secretion

Luteinizing :

____ hormone stimulates sex hormone production and triggers ovulation.


Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress


Helps control water & electrolyte homeostasis


_____ is a medicine used to decrease blood glucose levels


Regulates body's biological clock


Suppresses release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)


____ stimulate the growth of axillary and pubic hair.


Promotes T- cell maturation

T3 & T4:

Regulates oxygen use, BMR, cellular metabolism, growth & development

Follicle Stimulation Hormone:

Stimulates egg and sperm formation


regulates menstruation & lactation


Produced during pregnancy; increases flexibility of pubic symphysis; helps cervix dilate


Regulates production of sperm; responsible for male secondary sex characteristics

Pineal gland:

Produces melatonin


Regulates circadian rhythms of several biological functions; pervasive and powerful antioxidant


Produces thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor, thymopoietin


An actin-binding protein in cells; promotes the development of immune-system cells.


Signaling molecules made by oxidation that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.


One of two major Eicosanoids-smooth muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, immune response


One of two major Eicosanoids-Stimulate/enhances inflammatory response; promotes fever, intensifies pain

General adaptation syndrome:

Stress response controlled by hypothalamus

Three phases of stress response:

fight or flight, resistance reaction & exhaustion

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