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A & P 1552: Endocrine System/Chapter 18 - College of Dupage

A & P II, Skarbek-college of dupage; chapter 18 kimkwas
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Nervous system:
operates by electrical nerve impulses-action potentials
Action potentials:
conducted along axons, through neurotransmitters
Electrical nerve impulses:
quick acting impulses with short duration
Endocrine system:
operated by use of chemicals transported through blood
Hormones:
Chemicals transported through the blood
Chemical transporter:
usually takes hours or days to achieve response
Hormones:
substance that is typically produced in one part of the body, but acts in another part
Exocrine glands:
Uses ducts to secrete their substances
Endocrine glands:
secretes the substance through interstitial fluid, which diffuses into capillaries
Paracrines:
hormones that act on neighboring cells
Autocrines:
hormones that work on the same cell that created/secreated them
Target cells:
cells that are awaiting specific hormones
Circulating hormones:
Circulates through blood and are eliminated by liver & kidney
Lipid soluble hormones:
steroids, thyroid & nitric oxide
Nitric oxide:
____ ___ is a Signaling hormone & neurotransmitter secreted from synaptic end bulbs
Water soluble hormones:
catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, melatonin
Catecholamines:
chemically related neurotransmitters; epinephrine, norepenephrine, dopamine
Glycoprotein hormones:
proteins with carbohydrates attached
Water soluble hormones:
____ ____ hormones circulate through blood freely w/no special transport
Lipid soluble hormones:
require transport proteins to move to correct location
Insulin:
a water soluble hormone that has to be injected
Hypothalamus:
pituitary gland attaches to it by the stalk -infundibulum
Anterior pituitary gland:
aka adenohypophysis
Pituitary :
The ____ gland is under the control of the hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus:
Produces two types of hormones, which control anterior pituitary gland
Two hormones produced by hypothalamus:
releasing and inhibiting hormones
hGH:
human growth hormone
Human growth hormone:
promotes tissue growth by promoting synthesis of IGF's
IGF's:
Insulin like growth factors
TSH:
thyroid stimulating hormone
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone):
stimulates production of T3 & T4 hormones of the thyroid gland
FSH:
follicle stimulating hormone
FSH :
____ hormone causes the secretion of estrogen; initiates development of ovarian follicles
Follicle-stimulating hormone:
stimulates sperm production
LH:
luteinizing hormone
Luteinizing hormone:
triggers ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone & estrogen
PRL:
prolactin
Prolactin:
initiates/maintains milk secretion in lactating women
ACTH:
adrenocorticotropic hormone
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic):
controls production & secretion of adrenal glands
MSH:
melanocyte stimulating hormone
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone:
not known in humans; in amphibians it increases skin pigmentation
Posterior pituitary gland:
neurohypophysis
Posterior pituitary gland:
only stores hormones that are made by hypothalamus
Oxytocin:
causes uterus contractions & milk ejection
Antidiuretic hormone:
causes kidneys to reabsorb more water; decreases urine production
Thyroid gland:
just inferior to larynx; composed of right & left lateral lobes
T3:
triiodothyronine
T4:
thyroxine
T3 & T4:
lipid soluble hormones; diffuse through plasma membrane into interstitial fluid
T3 & T4:
produced by follicular cells and iodine
Thyroid hormones:
Increases BMR, which stimulates use of oxygen to make ATP
Thyroid gland:
stimulates protein synthesis; increases lipolysis
Lipolysis:
breakdown of lipids
Accelerates body growth:
one function of thyroid hormones
Calcitonin:
Parafollicular cells produce and secrete this; releases when blood calcium is too high
Parathyroid glands:
On the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland:
Decreases loss of calcium & magnesium in urine
Parathyroid gland:
promotes formation of calcitrol-active form of vitamin D in body
Adrenal cortex:
more superficial area which makes up bulk of adrenal gland
Aldosterone:
major hormone of mineral corticoids
Aldosterone:
promotes excretion of hydrogen ions in urine, removing acids from body
Androgens:
weak sex hormones; contribute to secondary sex characteristics
Adrenal medulla:
smaller central portion of the adrenal gland
Chromaffin cells:
produces hormones of the adrenal medulla
Four cells of pancreatic islets:
alpha, beta, delta & F cells
Alpha cells:
produces glucagon
Alpha cells:
increases blood glucose by acting on the liver
Beta cells:
Produces insulin
Beta :
_____ cells decrease blood glucose.
Delta cells:
Found in the Islets of Langerhans, these cells produces somatostatin
Delta cells:
inhibits release of insulin and glucagon; slows absorption of substances from GI tract
F cells:
Produces pancreatic polypeptides
F cells:
a polypeptide hormone, produced in the brain and pancreas, that inhibits secretion of somatotropin from the hypothalamus and inhibits insulin production by the pancreas.
Thyroid hormones:
Synthesize T3 & T4 by attaching iodine to the amino acid tyrosine
Peptide hormones:
_____ hormones are smaller chains of amino acids.
Protein hormones:
longer chains of amino acids
Glycoprotein hormones:
proteins w/a carbohydrate attached
Parathyroid Hormones:
Increases blood calcium levels
Glucagon
Increases blood glucose level
Calcitonin:
A polypeptide hormone that participates in the regulation of calcium levels
Prolactin:
initiates and maintains milk secretion
Luteinizing :
____ hormone stimulates sex hormone production and triggers ovulation.
Cortisol:
Regulates metabolism and resistance to stress
Aldosterone:
Helps control water & electrolyte homeostasis
Insulin:
_____ is a medicine used to decrease blood glucose levels
Melatonin:
Regulates body's biological clock
Inhibin:
Suppresses release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
Androgens:
____ stimulate the growth of axillary and pubic hair.
Thymosin:
Promotes T- cell maturation
T3 & T4:
Regulates oxygen use, BMR, cellular metabolism, growth & development
Follicle Stimulation Hormone:
Stimulates egg and sperm formation
Estrogen/progesterone:
regulates menstruation & lactation
Relaxin:
Produced during pregnancy; increases flexibility of pubic symphysis; helps cervix dilate
Testosterone:
Regulates production of sperm; responsible for male secondary sex characteristics
Pineal gland:
Produces melatonin
Melatonin:
Regulates circadian rhythms of several biological functions; pervasive and powerful antioxidant
Thymus:
Produces thymosin, thymic humoral factor, thymic factor, thymopoietin
Thymosin:
An actin-binding protein in cells; promotes the development of immune-system cells.
Eicosanoids:
Signaling molecules made by oxidation that exert complex control over many bodily systems, mainly in inflammation or immunity, and as messengers in the central nervous system.
Prostaglandins:
One of two major Eicosanoids-smooth muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, immune response
Leukotreines:
One of two major Eicosanoids-Stimulate/enhances inflammatory response; promotes fever, intensifies pain
General adaptation syndrome:
Stress response controlled by hypothalamus
Three phases of stress response:
fight or flight, resistance reaction & exhaustion