from which reactant is the O2 product derived from? (in photosynthesis equation)
part of photosynthesis that involves electromagnetic energy (visible light). ATP and NADP are produced. takes place in the thylakoid membrane.
molecules that absorb, reflect, or transmit light
machine that measures transmission/absorbance of light through a substance.
a cluster of pigments embedded into a thylakoid membrane
takes electrons and becomes reducted
gives electrons and becomes oxidized.
substance that supplies constant electron supply for the light reaction of photosynthesis.
a term that referrs to how e- are lost in NADPH in the complete light reaction.
a term that refers to the negative feedback inhibitor of photosystem I that is needed when NADPH reductase needs to be inhibited
A reaction taking place in the thylakoid membranes of a chloroplast during light-dependant reactions where two molecules of water are split to form oxygen, hydrogen ions, and electrons
process of adding a phosphate group
the initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds
carbon fixation process (aka dark reaction) in photosynthesis. forms sugar/other organic compounds
a graph plotting a pigment light light absorption
a profile of the relative performance of the different wavelengths in photosynthesis.
only pigment that can participate directly in the light reactions
hydrocarbons/ accesory pigments that broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
reaction center chlorophyll in the photosystem II.
reaction center cholophyll in the photosystem I
the location of the first light driven chemical reaction of photosynthesis.
primary electron acceptor
specialized molecule that shares a reaction center with the chlorophyll a molecule in the light reaction. traps high energy electron before it can return to ground state in the chlorophyll.
iron containing protein in the photosystem I. passes the excited electron to NADP reductase to reduce NADP+
enzyme in photosystem I that reduces nadp+ to form NADPH.
A small protein that shuttles electrons from photosystem II to photosystem I during photosynthesis.
allows H+ to be pass through . passes the excited electron to the lastocyanin.
small protein that shuttles electrons from the primary e- acceptor to the cytochrome in photosystem II.
process by which a Hydrogen pump pumps protons into the thylakoid membrane. H+ passively flows thorugh the ATP synthase which leads to the creation of ATP
five carbon sugar in the calvin cycle. has a carbon molecule attached to it by rubisco
the most abundant protein in the chloroplasts in on eart. attaches a carbon to rubp to form a six carbon intermediate that splits in half to form two molecules of 3 phosphoglycerate.
molecule formed as a result of an additional phosphate group from atp in the reducion phase of the calvin cycle.
sugar formed when nadph reduces 1,3-bisphosphoglyceride y adding electrons
how many cycles of the calvin cycle does it take in order to generate one whole glucose molecule
very inefficient process that occurs in c3 plants. occurs when oxygen instead of co2 is consumed by rubisco which fomrs a two carbon compound. leads to no atp. decreases photosynthetic output by sighoning organic material from the calvin cycle.
plants where the initial fixation of carbon occurs via rubisco.
plants that preface the calvin cycle with an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a four carbon compound as its first product. ex: sugarcane, corn, and members of the grass family
bundle sheath cells
cells in the leaf of c4 plants that ae arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of the leaf. site of calvin cycle. receive co2 from mesophyll cells.
enzyme that adds co2 to pep. has a high affinity for co2 thus is more efficient at carbon fixation than rubisco.
loosely arranged cells in c4 plants that fix carbon to pep in order to release co2 to the bundle sheath cells through plasmodesmata.
succulent plants that open their stomata tduring the night and cloise them during the day to help plants in arid environments conserve water. take up co2 and incorporate it into a vareity of organic acids which can be released during the day to make sugar.