16 terms

AP Govt Unit 2 Court Cases and Constitution Clauses

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Privileges and Immunities Clause
No state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other states.
Supremacy Clause
Constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land.
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Clause in the Constitution (Article IV, Section 1) requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
Marbury vs. Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
Fletcher vs. Peck
first time a state law is declare unconstitutional, contract clause of the Constitution overrode state law
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts
Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. US
the U.S. Congress could use the Constitution's Commerce Clause power to force private businesses to abide by the Civil Rights Act of 1964
McCulloch vs. Maryland
The state of Maryland could not tax Bank of the United States; if states had powers to tax any part of the federal gov., they would be superior, which is unconstitutional
US vs. Lopez
Supreme Court case in which it was determined that Congress was exceeding the commerce clause power in prohibiting guns in schools
Printz vs. US
The Court held that states were not required to conduct instant national background checks prior to selling a handgun.
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Gave control of interstate commerce to U.S. Congress (1824)
NLRB vs. Jones Lauflin Steel
Court held that the National Labor Relations Act was narrowly constructed so as to regulate industrial activities which had the potential to restrict interstate commerce.
South Dakota vs. Dole
The Court ruled that it was permissible for the federal government to require states that wanted transportation funds to pass laws setting twenty-one as the legal drinking age.
District of Columbia vs. Heller
2008 case in which the supreme court struck down wachington dc's ban on the possession of handguns and for the first time held that the 2nd amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm for lawful purposes such as self defense
Barron vs. Baltimore
the 1833 decision holding that the bill of rights (Fifth Amendment) restrained only the national gov't, and NOT the states.
Gitlow vs. New York
the 1925 decision holding that freedoms of press and speech are "fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the 14th amendment from impairment by the states" as well as by the federal gov't.