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45 terms

Chapter 29 Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients

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sucrose
the chemical name for regular refined sugar or table sugar
emulsions
a flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils mixed with water with aid of vegetable gums or other substances
gluten
a substance made up of proteins present in wheat flour that gives structure and strength to baked goods
strong flours
flour with a high protein content derived from hard wheat
weak flours
flour with a low protein content from soft wheat
fermentation
the process by which yeast changes carbohydrates to alcohol and and carbon dioxide gas
glucose
the primary sugar present in corn syrup
lard
the rendered fat of hogs
staling
the change in texture of baked goods due in part tot he loss of moisture by starch granules
extract
a flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils and other substances dissolved in alcohol
chocolate liquor
the product that results when cocoa beans are roasted and ground
cocoa butter
the white or yellowish fat that is a component of chocolate liquor
cocoa
the dry powder that remains aftrer the fat is removed from chocolate liquor
Dutch process cocoa
cocoa processed with alkali
sweet chocolate
the product that is made when sugar is added to chocolate liquor
milk chocolate
the product that is made when sugar and milk solids are added to chocolate liquor
leavening
the production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to porduce shape and texture
shortening
any of a group of solid fats, usually white and tasteless that have been especially formulated for baking
creaming
the process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air
foaming
the process of whipping eggs with or without sugar to incorporate air
10X
the finest or smoothest variety of confectioners' sugar
bread flour
...a strong flour used for making breads, hard rolls and any product that require high gluten.
cake flour
...a weak or low-gluten flour made from soft wheat. It has a soft, smooth texture and a pure white color; used for delicate baked goods
pastry flour
...lower in gluten than bread flour but igher than cake flour; creamy shite color; used fro cookies, pie pastry, biscuits, muffins.
whole wheat flour
...made by grinding the entire wheat kernel including the bran and germ;
pumpernickel
...rye meal; made from the whole rye grain.
rye blend
...rye flour and hard wheat flour mixture
regular shortening
...has good creaming ability; used in products mixed by the creaming method; used for flaky products such as pie crusts and biscuits
emulsified shortening
...soft shortenings that spread easily throughout a batter and quickly coat the particles of sugar and flour; gives a smoother and finer texture to cakes and makes them moister
confectioners' sugar
...ground to a fine powder mixed with a small amount of starch to prevent caking; 6X
fresh yeast
...compressed yeast; moist and perishable and is preferred by professional bakers
active dry yeast
...dry, granular form of yeast; rehydrated in 4 times its weight in water
instant dry yeast
...dry granular form of yeast but does not have to be dissolved in water; rapid-rise or quick-rise yeast
chemical leavener
...releases gases produced by chemical reactions; baking soda, baking soda; baking ammonia
single- and double- acting
...single-acting baking powder require only moisture to release gas; double-acting baking powder require heat for complete reaction
baking powders
...mixtures of baking soda plus an acid to react with it
patents
the best bread flours
straight flours
strong flours
bran flour
flour to which bran flakes have been added; may be coarse or fine
meal
products that are not as finely ground as flour
cornstarch
used to thicken cream pies and other products that must hold their shape
waxy maize
does not break down when frozen; clear when cooked; makes a fine paste which has the same consistency hot and cold
instant starches
precooked or pregelatinized so they thicken cold liquids without further cooking
molasses
concentrated sugar cane juice; retains moisture in baked goods and prolongs freshness
brown sugar
mostly sucrose plus other sugars, acids and impurities; contains varying amounts of molasses