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the chemical name for regular refined sugar or table sugar


a flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils mixed with water with aid of vegetable gums or other substances


a substance made up of proteins present in wheat flour that gives structure and strength to baked goods

strong flours

flour with a high protein content derived from hard wheat

weak flours

flour with a low protein content from soft wheat


the process by which yeast changes carbohydrates to alcohol and and carbon dioxide gas


the primary sugar present in corn syrup


the rendered fat of hogs


the change in texture of baked goods due in part tot he loss of moisture by starch granules


a flavoring ingredient consisting of flavorful oils and other substances dissolved in alcohol

chocolate liquor

the product that results when cocoa beans are roasted and ground

cocoa butter

the white or yellowish fat that is a component of chocolate liquor


the dry powder that remains aftrer the fat is removed from chocolate liquor

Dutch process cocoa

cocoa processed with alkali

sweet chocolate

the product that is made when sugar is added to chocolate liquor

milk chocolate

the product that is made when sugar and milk solids are added to chocolate liquor


the production or incorporation of gases in a baked product to increase volume and to porduce shape and texture


any of a group of solid fats, usually white and tasteless that have been especially formulated for baking


the process of beating fat and sugar together to incorporate air


the process of whipping eggs with or without sugar to incorporate air


the finest or smoothest variety of confectioners' sugar

bread flour

...a strong flour used for making breads, hard rolls and any product that require high gluten.

cake flour

...a weak or low-gluten flour made from soft wheat. It has a soft, smooth texture and a pure white color; used for delicate baked goods

pastry flour

...lower in gluten than bread flour but igher than cake flour; creamy shite color; used fro cookies, pie pastry, biscuits, muffins.

whole wheat flour

...made by grinding the entire wheat kernel including the bran and germ;


...rye meal; made from the whole rye grain.

rye blend

...rye flour and hard wheat flour mixture

regular shortening

...has good creaming ability; used in products mixed by the creaming method; used for flaky products such as pie crusts and biscuits

emulsified shortening

...soft shortenings that spread easily throughout a batter and quickly coat the particles of sugar and flour; gives a smoother and finer texture to cakes and makes them moister

confectioners' sugar

...ground to a fine powder mixed with a small amount of starch to prevent caking; 6X

fresh yeast

...compressed yeast; moist and perishable and is preferred by professional bakers

active dry yeast

...dry, granular form of yeast; rehydrated in 4 times its weight in water

instant dry yeast

...dry granular form of yeast but does not have to be dissolved in water; rapid-rise or quick-rise yeast

chemical leavener

...releases gases produced by chemical reactions; baking soda, baking soda; baking ammonia

single- and double- acting

...single-acting baking powder require only moisture to release gas; double-acting baking powder require heat for complete reaction

baking powders

...mixtures of baking soda plus an acid to react with it


the best bread flours

straight flours

strong flours

bran flour

flour to which bran flakes have been added; may be coarse or fine


products that are not as finely ground as flour


used to thicken cream pies and other products that must hold their shape

waxy maize

does not break down when frozen; clear when cooked; makes a fine paste which has the same consistency hot and cold

instant starches

precooked or pregelatinized so they thicken cold liquids without further cooking


concentrated sugar cane juice; retains moisture in baked goods and prolongs freshness

brown sugar

mostly sucrose plus other sugars, acids and impurities; contains varying amounts of molasses

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