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zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found


smallest unit of a human being and all living things


concept supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and conclusions


internal environment that normally varies within only certain limits


artificial situation devised to test a hypothesis


weak bond that arises between a slightly positive Hydrogen Atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between parts of the same molecule


type of molecule that interacts with Water by dissolving in Water and/or forming Hydrogen Bonds with Water Molecules

Covalent Bond

chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of Electrons


charged particle that carries a negative or positive charge


breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier

List the 5 Steps of the Scientific Method in order

Observations, Hypothesis, Experiment/Observations, Conclusion, Scientific Theory

Name the 4 Organic Molecules of Life and give their Functions

Carbohydrates-Immediate energy and stored energy, structural molecules; Proteins-Long Term energy storage, membrane components; Lipids- Support Metabolic, Transport, Regulation, and Motion; Nucleic Acids- Storage of Genetic Information

The splitting of a Triglyceride (Fat) into Glycerol and Fatty Acids involves the addition of what compound?

Hydrolysis (Water)

When mixed together, Water is a _________ and the dye (solid) is a ______________

Solvent; Solute

Sodium Ion (Na+) movement across Plasma Membrane occurs by __________ ____________

Active Transport

Carrier Proteins are ____________ in their action


Isotonic Solutions have the _______________ concentrations of Water and Solute


Glycolipids contain _________ and __________

Lipids; Carbohydrates

Exocytosis involves fusion with the ________________

Plasma Membrane

Name the substances that can pass through a Plasma Membrane by the way of Diffusion

Water, Oxygen, Non Charged Atoms, Carbon DIoxide

What type of Protein is this? Name this Structure?

Channel; Phospholipid (characterized as Hydrophilic)

Pickles appear wrinkled and shriveled because they have been placed in a ______________ Solution



Diffusion of Water Molecules through a Selectively Permeable Membrane

Peptide Bond

covalent bond that links 2 Amino Acids together to form a Polypeptide Chain.

What 2 Reactive Groups are involved in the formation of a Peptide Bond?

Amino Group and Carboxyl (Acid) Group

A molecule of what compound must be removed in order to form a Peptide Bond?

Dehydration Reaction (Water is removed)

Is the "OH" for this molecule derived from the Carboxyl Group or from the Amino Group?

Carboxyl Group

Is the "H" for this molecule derived from the Carboxyl Group or from the Amino Group?

Amino Group

The splitting of a Dipeptide into 2 Amino Acids would reverse the reaction. What molecule would have to be added to a Dipeptide in order to break a Peptide Bond and then split the Dipeptide into 2 Amino Acids?

Hydrolysis (Adding Water- Human Body occurs in the throat (mouth) through Saliva))


breaks down macromolecules which the components of water are added


(Fat); 3 part Structure; "Neutral Fat" b/c the molecule is Non-Polar and carries no charges

What 2 Reactive Groups are in the joining of Glycerol and Fatty Acids?

Hydroxyl Group and Carboxyl (Acid) Group

Which one of these Reactive Groups is part of the Glycerol Molecule?

Hydroxide Group (Hydrogen)

Which one of these Reactive Groups is part of the Fatty Acid Molecule?

Carboxyl (Acid) Group

A molecule of what compound is removed when Glycerol and Fatty Acids are joined?

Dehydration (Water)

The "OH" for this compound comes from which Reactive Group?

Carboxyl (Acid) Group

The "H" for this compound comes from which Reactive Group?

Hydroxide Group

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