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37 terms

Human Biology- Test # 1- Quiz Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Biosphere
zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found
Cell
smallest unit of a human being and all living things
Theory
concept supported by a broad range of observations, experiments, and conclusions
Homeostasis
internal environment that normally varies within only certain limits
Experiment
artificial situation devised to test a hypothesis
Hydrogen
weak bond that arises between a slightly positive Hydrogen Atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another molecule or between parts of the same molecule
Hydrophilic
type of molecule that interacts with Water by dissolving in Water and/or forming Hydrogen Bonds with Water Molecules
Covalent Bond
chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of Electrons
Ion
charged particle that carries a negative or positive charge
Emulsification
breaking up of fat globules into smaller droplets by the action of bile salts or any other emulsifier
List the 5 Steps of the Scientific Method in order
Observations, Hypothesis, Experiment/Observations, Conclusion, Scientific Theory
Name the 4 Organic Molecules of Life and give their Functions
Carbohydrates-Immediate energy and stored energy, structural molecules; Proteins-Long Term energy storage, membrane components; Lipids- Support Metabolic, Transport, Regulation, and Motion; Nucleic Acids- Storage of Genetic Information
The splitting of a Triglyceride (Fat) into Glycerol and Fatty Acids involves the addition of what compound?
Hydrolysis (Water)
When mixed together, Water is a _________ and the dye (solid) is a ______________
Solvent; Solute
Sodium Ion (Na+) movement across Plasma Membrane occurs by __________ ____________
Active Transport
Carrier Proteins are ____________ in their action
Enzymatic
Isotonic Solutions have the _______________ concentrations of Water and Solute
Same
Glycolipids contain _________ and __________
Lipids; Carbohydrates
Exocytosis involves fusion with the ________________
Plasma Membrane
Name the substances that can pass through a Plasma Membrane by the way of Diffusion
Water, Oxygen, Non Charged Atoms, Carbon DIoxide
What type of Protein is this? Name this Structure?
Channel; Phospholipid (characterized as Hydrophilic)
Pickles appear wrinkled and shriveled because they have been placed in a ______________ Solution
Hypertonic
Osmosis
Diffusion of Water Molecules through a Selectively Permeable Membrane
Peptide Bond
covalent bond that links 2 Amino Acids together to form a Polypeptide Chain.
What 2 Reactive Groups are involved in the formation of a Peptide Bond?
Amino Group and Carboxyl (Acid) Group
A molecule of what compound must be removed in order to form a Peptide Bond?
Dehydration Reaction (Water is removed)
Is the "OH" for this molecule derived from the Carboxyl Group or from the Amino Group?
Carboxyl Group
Is the "H" for this molecule derived from the Carboxyl Group or from the Amino Group?
Amino Group
The splitting of a Dipeptide into 2 Amino Acids would reverse the reaction. What molecule would have to be added to a Dipeptide in order to break a Peptide Bond and then split the Dipeptide into 2 Amino Acids?
Hydrolysis (Adding Water- Human Body occurs in the throat (mouth) through Saliva))
Hydrolysis
breaks down macromolecules which the components of water are added
Triglyceride
(Fat); 3 part Structure; "Neutral Fat" b/c the molecule is Non-Polar and carries no charges
What 2 Reactive Groups are in the joining of Glycerol and Fatty Acids?
Hydroxyl Group and Carboxyl (Acid) Group
Which one of these Reactive Groups is part of the Glycerol Molecule?
Hydroxide Group (Hydrogen)
Which one of these Reactive Groups is part of the Fatty Acid Molecule?
Carboxyl (Acid) Group
A molecule of what compound is removed when Glycerol and Fatty Acids are joined?
Dehydration (Water)
The "OH" for this compound comes from which Reactive Group?
Carboxyl (Acid) Group
The "H" for this compound comes from which Reactive Group?
Hydroxide Group