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44 terms

AP U.S. History Chapter 13 Terms

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Andrew Jackson
known as "Old Hickory"; hates the British and the Indians; war hero in the Battle of New Orleans; defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; believed in the Common Man; reduced voting restictions; 7th president; "Good Ole Boy System"; Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears; Worcester v. Georgia
John C. Calhoun
War Hawk; supporter of states' rights; believed South Carolina had the right to "nullify", or ignore, federal laws that they thought were wrong, part of Whig Party
Henry Clay
War Hawk; called "the Great Compromiser" because of his ability to get opposing sides to agree; Missouri Compromise; speaker of House from Kentucky, Secretary of State in Adams' administration after the 1824 election; created American System; Compromise of 1850
Martin Van Buren
known as "Little Magician" vice president; destruction of Second Bank of the United States; blocked annexation of Texas; Panic of 1837; Free Soil Party
William Crawford
was Sec. of Treasury under James Monroe Presidency; and a canidate for Presidency in 1824 he represented the south in this election
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
Daniel Webster
leader of Whig Party;
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
Osceola
Seminole leader who resisted the removal of his people from Florida in the 1830s; Second Seminole War
Stephen Austin
Original settler of Texas, granted land from Mexico on condition of no slaves, convert to Roman Catholic, and learn Spanish,, Austin, Texas was named after him; he was the man the brought the first Americans into Texas because he was granted permission by the Mexicans. Leader of Texas settlers in 1820
William Harrison
the Whig Party candidate who was elected President in 1840; died after only one month of being President
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
John Tyler
became President after William Harrison died; not a true Whig; was a Southern Democrat who sided with the Whigs because he did not like Andrew Jackson; begin to oppose Whig agenda; known as the President without a party because he was kicked out of Whig Party
Santa Anna
Mexican general who became president and then dictator over Mexico; led the Mexican army against Texans in the War for Texas Independence
Black Hawk
Sauk Chief, led a force of Sauk and Fox people back to Illinois, their homeland.
William Travis
He was the man at the Alamo missions in command of the Texas forces
annexation
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
antislavery
Opposed to human slavery
"favorite son"
candidate that receives the backing of his home state rather than of the national party
common man
The "average" American citizen, whose concerns are represented in government.
nullification
the failure or refusal of a U.S. state to aid in the enforcement of federal laws within its state limits
Spoils System
the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters
rotation in office
Beginning in 1829, Jackson invoked this wholesale practice as his guiding principle, saying plainly that "no one man has any more intrinsic right to office than another."
Democratic-Republicans
a political party started by Thomas Jefferson; believed in states' rights and an economy based on agriculture
Anti-Masonic party
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party
Revolution of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson
Twelfth Amendment
requires electors to vote for president and vice president on separate ballots
Corrupt Bargain
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
South Carolina Exposition
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
Tariff of 1832
a tariff imposed by Jackson which was unpopular in the South; South Carolina nullified it, but Jackson pushed through the Force Act, which enabled him to make South Carolina comply through force; Henry Clay reworked the tariff so that South Carolina would accept it, but after accepting it, South Carolina also nullified the Force Act
Specie Circular
executive order issued by Jackson declaring that all purchases of public lands had to be made with gold and silver
slavocracy
Term the North used to describe the Slaveholding South and its "schemes" to gain more slave-land.
Tariff of 1833
Stated that import taxes would gradually decrease by about 10% over a period of eight years until they matched the levels of the Tariff of 1816. Although the state and federal governments were able to strike a compromise, Jackson's near invasion of S. Carolina illustrated the federal government's stance on the power of a state to annul federal laws.
Trail of Tears
the forced removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma in the winter 1838-1839; many died along the way
Panic of 1837
the economic depression that resulted from the closing of the national bank and the Specie Circular issued by Jackson
Force Bill
authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
Seminole Indians
They lived in Florida as runaways from other tribes. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west.
Divorce Bill
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the government could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
Bank of the United States
the national bank that the government deposited money from taxes into and issued paper money
Pet Banks
state banks where Jackson deposited federal money after it had been wiithdrawn from the national bank
Democratic Party
One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights
Whig Party
the political party made up of the National Republicans such as Clay, Webster, and some Democrats such as Calhoun; all of whom did not like Andrew Jackson
independent treasury
President Van Buren's plan to keep government funds in its own vualts and do business entirely in hard money rather than keep them in depostits within shaky banks.