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APES Chapters 13 & 20
Terms in this set (51)
What major human activity greatly contributes to flooding?
What is the movement of water in the seas, air, and on the land that is driven by solar energy and gravity called?
Hydrologic or water cycle
What is the first step of wastewater treatment?
Primary sewage treatment is a physical process where the suspended solids are removed.
What is the second step of wastewater treatment?
Secondary sewage treatment is a biological process where aerobic bacteria break down dissolved organic waste
What is the third step of wastewater treatment?
Tertiary or advanced sewage treatment is a physical and chemical process that removes specific pollutants, like phosphates and nitrates, and sterilizes water through bleaching or chlorination or UV light treatment.
Name two ways scientists determine the presence and concentration of water pollutants
Chemical analysis of sediments and water, using genetically modified bacteria, or by identifying indicator species
Name three disadvantages of a dam and reservoir system
Failure of dam can lead to flooding, disrupts fish migrations, and displaces people and wildlife
What happens to the amount of oxygen in water as the water temperature drops?
The amount of oxygen increases in water as the temperature decreases.
How do deep-water oceans effectively deal with large amounts of sewage, sludge, and oil?
They can dilute, disperse, and degrade large amounts of sewage, sludge, and oil
Where does the majority of the oil pollution of the oceans come from?
Runoff from land
What are three functions of dams and reservoirs?
Generate electricity, control flooding, supply water for cities and agriculture
Before the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, what was the largest oil spill and when?
Exxon Valdez tanker spill in 1989 in Alaska's Prince William Sound
Who owns municipal water?
What is the most efficient irrigation method?
Trickle or drip irrigation
What are three ways we use water and how much is used in each?
70% Agriculture, 20% Industrial, and 10% Domestic
What happens in a septic tank?
Waste is collected in a settling tank. Sludge settles to the bottom and grease and gases rise to the top. Bacteria decompose the solids. The bacteria treated waste passes through perforated pipes to an absorption field. The tank must be emptied every 3 -5 years.
What is the zone of saturation?
the area underground where the spaces in soil and rock are completely filled with water
What are the three leading causes of water pollution?
Agriculture activities, industrial facilities, and mining
What is an aquifer?
An aquifer is the geological layer where groundwater flows (SLOWLY) consisting of underground caverns and porous layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock
Why do rivers and streams recover faster from pollution than lakes and ponds?
Rivers and streams flow and can dilute and disperse pollutants faster than lakes and ponds
What is an pathogen?
A disease causing organism like bacteria, viruses, protists, worms, and fungi
What is an oxygen sag curve?
An oxygen sag curve is the point where a pollutant is introduced into the water of a river or stream and the oxygen levels start to drop due to the oxygen-demanding waste present.
Name two harmful environmental effects of drought?
Reduces crop yields, reduces stream flows and water levels in lakes, dries out soil
What are two reasons areas face hydrological poverty?
Drought in an area, population growth in an area that includes urban sprawl, and wasting water
Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world. What are two disadvantages of the dam?
Millions of people were displaced. It is built on a seismic fault line. May release large amounts of methane gas due to decomposition and dumped sewage.
What is the difference between eutrophication and cultural eutrophication?
Eutrophication is the natural nutrient enrichment of a body of water. Cultural eutrophication is when humans enhance and expedite the process by using fertilizers with nitrates and phosphates that get in surface runoff and eventually into a body of water.
What is the difference between the Clean Water Act of 1972 and the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974?
The Clean Water Act set standards for levels of key pollutants released into surface waters. The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act set standards for contaminants in public water supply.
What is a way we can use available freshwater sustainably?
Access to water is...
-A global health issue
-An economic issue
-A women's and children's issue
-A national and global security issue
How many people lack adequate supplies of safe water
In developing countries/ 1.5 billion people
recharged naturally by precipitation, found below the water table, porous water-saturated layers of sand or gravel
What is a watershed?
Land area that delivers water via small streams to a major stream
What is an advantage of withdrawing groundwater?
No evaporation losses
What is the world's largest known aquifer?
How can we prevent or control groundwater depletion?
Waste less water
What is the correct order for producing hydroelectricity?
Water flow, turbine, generator, electricity
What states do not depend on the Colorado River Basin for water?
Idaho and Montana
What is a major problem of the Colorado River Basin?
The basin lands are arid
Which of the following large-scale water transfer project has been shrinking leaving behind a salty desert, economic ruin, and severe ecological disruption?
The Aral Sea
What is an advantage of converting salty seawater to freshwater?
Increases supply of freshwater
What are terms associated with removing salt from seawater?
Reverse osmosis, microfiltration, distillation, desalination
A flat valley floor next to a stream channel is called a
Give an example of a point source of water pollution
List (in order) the largest to the least cause of water pollution
Agriculture, industrial, mining
Low water flow and ____________________ makes lakes vulnerable to water pollution
Difficulty for pollutants to become diluted
Excess nutrients from agricultural/industrial runoff leads to
Give the sequence of events that describes the steps of cultural eutrophication
Runoff, algal bloom, algae die, bacteria decompose algae, fish kill
Why can't groundwater cleanse itself very well?
What is the most effective strategy for protecting drinking water?
Protecting it through pollution prevention
What legislature was passed that set maximum contamination levels for any pollutants that affect human health in public water supply?
U.S Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974
What watershed covers most of the U.S and creates the largest oxygen-depleted zone in the United States?
Mississippi River Basin
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