Praxis II: Elementary Education (5015) - Reading and Language Arts Set
Keywords about instruction, assessment, and content in language arts and reading.
Terms in this set (101)
Basal Reading Approach
Whole word reading approach that makes use of flashcards, manuals, workbooks, readers and tests; may be meaning-emphasis or code-emphasis.
Whole Language Approach
An approach to reading instruction based on the idea that instruction should parallel children's natural language learning. Reading materials should be whole and meaningful. Reading and writing are structurally related.
Literature-Based Reading Approach
An approach to reading instruction that utilizes children's literature in a leveled format.
A reading approach that focuses on the mastery of words rather than using isolated sounds.
Language Experience Approach
Integrates the development of reading skills with listening, speaking and writing; students dictate stories to the teacher which become the basis for the students' first experiences with reading. Emphasizes the importance of an oral tradition; reading and writing are secondary to oral language.
Individualized Reading Approach
reading approach that is less structured in which students are allowed to choose the reading selections and work at their own pace; teacher facilitates student progress through diagnostics.
Awareness of words and their meanings as well as interest in their usage.
The smallest unit of sound.
Blending sounds in a word in order to say the word; a critical component of reading
Making new words by adding a phoneme to a word (e.g. adding /t/ to "rain" to make "train")
Providing a sequence of spoken phonemes to form a word (e.g. /s/ /i/ /t/ makes "sit")
Identifying words that do not belong in a set (e.g. ton, tea, sit, tug - sit does not belong because it does not have the same onset /t/)
Identifying the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from an existing word (e.g. crock becomes rock when /c/ is removed)
Recognizing the same sounds in a variety of words
Recognizing separate sounds in words
Breaking a word into separate sounds and counting them (e.g. there are 3 sounds in the word "pig" - /p/ /i/ /g/)
Changing one phoneme for another to make a new word (e.g. "bed" becomes "bet" when you change /d/ for /t/)
The concept that written language is comprised of letters that represent sounds in spoken words
A sequence of consonants before or after a vowel in a given syllable (e.g. /tr/ or /sh/)
Specific techniques that promote reading comprehension such as predicting or gaining word meanings from context
Ability to sound out new words or to interpret a word from print to speech through the skill of sound-symbol correspondence
The smallest unit of meaningful language that may be part of a word (e.g. syllable, prefix or suffix) or an entire word
Onset and Rime
Parts of words in the spoken language smaller than syllables; onset is the initial consonant sound; rime is the portion of the syllable with the vowel and the remainder of the word (e.g. in "star" - /st/ is the onset and /ar/ is the rime)
Development of spoken language system that includes vocabulary, listening skills and grammar ability
Comprehending that sounds in language are represented by printed or written symbols; awareness of spelling rules
Peer Response and Edit
A process for students to share feedback with one another on their writing
Promotes understanding of alphabetic principles and the relationships between phonemes (sounds) and graphemes (letters)
Listening skills and ability to understand that sounds are related to written words
Knowing the basic concepts about written words such as symbols have meaning, print organization, reading left to right, and separating words by spaces
A cooperative effort between students and the teacher to compose a written piece by providing thoughts, ideas, and content
Reading strategies that help a learner read written words
Words from other languages that are the origin of English words
A strategy in which the teacher shares his or her thoughts as he or she composes a piece with students, which is a modeled writing technique
Initial process (construction stage), Developing process (extending stage), Reflection/response process (extension of reading stage), Critical Analysis (examining stage)
A narrative in which the characters and events represent an idea or truth about life in general
A narrative in which the author writes about his or her own life
A narrative in which an author writes about another person's life
A genre of literature in which life is dealt with in a humorous manner, often poking fun at people's mistakes
A genre of literature that uses dialogue to present its message to the audience and is meant to be performed; a play
A nonfiction piece that is often short and used to express the writer's opinion about a topic or to share information on a subject
A short story, often with animals as main characters, that teaches a moral or lesson
A genre of literature in which a story is set in an imaginary world, involving magic or adventure, in which the characters often have supernatural powers
A story that has been passed down orally from one generation to another; the characters usually follow the extreme and in the end
A story that was created to explain some natural force of nature, religious belief, or social phenomenon; gods and goddesses have supernatural powers, but humans do not
A fictional narrative of book length in which characters and plot are developed in a somewhat realistic manner
A simple, short story that is used to explain a belief, moral or religious lesson
A literary work that uses colorful, concise, rhythmic language and focuses on the expression of ideas and emotions
A literary work that is in ordinary form, without metrical structure, and uses the familiar structure of spoken language, sentence after sentence
A type of writing in which the reality of life is shown
A genre of literature, often set in the future, in which real or imaginary scientific developments and concepts are prevalent
A narrative that can be read in one sitting. It has few characters, but the characters usually go through some sort of change through the course of the story
A humorous and exaggerated story often based on the life of a real person
A genre of literature in which there is a downfall of the hero due to a tragic flaw or personal characteristic and that results in an unhappy, melancholic, or tragic ending
Characteristic of narrative that is defined by how the details are placed and how transitions move within the story; episodes or scenes that function to move the story along
The attitude or feeling that a piece of literature conveys through its characters, word choice, and writing style
Point of View (POV)
Who is telling the story or what angle the story is told from; there are 5 basic POVs: Objective, Third Person, First Person, Omniscient, Limited Omniscient
The main character in the story who is often good or possesses heroic qualities
The person or force that works against the hero (protagonist) in the story
A component of narrative that is a view on life or how people conduct themselves
Sequence of events in a narrative
The event(s) from which a plot is derived: Character versus self, character versus character, character versus society, character versus nature, character versus supernatural, character versus technology, character versus fate (destiny)
A component of narrative that is comprised of the series of events that build up from the conflict ending with the climax
The turning point of the conflict that is most intense between the two opposing forces in the story
The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted. It is the highest point of the story; the point of no return
A form of writing in which the information is presented as fact or truth.
A scheme of how words are organized into sound patterns
The rhythm of the poem; the pattern of accented and unaccented syllables
Repetition of the beginning of a consonant sound
Repetition of vowel sounds
Repetition of consonant sounds anywhere within words
When a word sound relates to its meaning
One unit of meter (e.g. Iamb, Troche, Spondee, Dactyl, Anapest)
A line of poetry written in meter and named for the number of feet per line (e.g. Iambic Pentameter)
The sections or lines of a poem (e.g. couplet, triplet, sestet etc)
Original sources that give the reader firsthand knowledge (knowledge that was experienced by observing or participating in the activity) such as in interviews, presentations, surveys, diaries or journals, and observation and participation
Sources that share information from a primary source; facts and data that can be collected and gathered from a variety of primary sources such as in an encyclopedia
The way authors organize written work
Giving sounds for an individual letter and writing letters in response to their individual sounds
Reading and recognizing familiar and common words (sight words)
Reading aloud and having the student write the letter spoken based on the sound spoken or the letter name uttered
Reading is done with expression and is automatic and flowing (does not require comprehension)
Question-answer relationship; readers learn how to answer questions, delineate between explicit and implicit information, and draw on background knowledge: "right there," "think and search," "author and you," and "on your own" questions.
When the verb transfers its action to an object; the noun must receive the action of the verb for verb meaning to be complete (e.g. "the girl threw the ball" - "threw" needs the object to make sense)
When the verb complete its actions without an object (e.g. "His shoulder felt sore."
A verb that ends in -ing and is used as a noun (e.g. "Screaming is pointless")
The study of the spelling systems of language; how letters are combined to form words and represent sounds
The study of the forms of words and how words develop
The study of word meaning within linguistics; incorporates the study of sense, reference, implication, logical form, word meaning, word relations, and the structure of meaning
A combination of two letters possessing a single sound (e.g. /ea/ in "head" or /ch/ in "chance")
Two vowels in which the sound begins at the first vowel and moves toward the sound of the second vowel (e.g. "boy")
Two or more words that have the same pronunciation and spelling, but have different meanings (e.g. bear - animal; bear - to carry)
Two or more words that are spelled differently, pronounced identically, but have different meanings (e.g. two, to, too; hour, our; sweet, suite)
Two or more words that have the same spelling, but different meanings (e.g. read/read, dove/dove)
A form of writing that compares one person, place, thing, idea, concept or characteristic to another in order to improve, magnify, strengthen, refine and clarify meaning; extends beyond the literal meaning of the words used
Exaggeration or overstatement
Stages of the Writing Process
Prewriting, Rough draft, Reread, Revise, Edit, Final Draft
The attempts of a young child to spell words using his or her best judgment
Stages of Spelling Development
Precommunicative (symbols are used to represent alphabet but letter-sound does not correspond); Semiphonic (Letter-sound correspondence begins to arise, single letters are used); Phonetic (when every sound heard is represented by a letter or group of letters); Transitional
" Shared reading is a collaborative learning activity, based on research by Don Holdaway (1979), that emulates and builds from the child's experience with bedtime stories."
In early childhood classrooms, shared reading typically involves a teacher and a large group of children sitting closely together to read and reread carefully selected enlarged texts. Shared reading can also be done effectively with smaller groups. With this instructional technique, students have an opportunity to gradually assume more responsibility for the reading as their skill level and confidence increase.
Small-group reading instruction designed to provide differentiated teaching that supports students in developing reading proficiency. The small group model allows children to be taught in a way that is intended to be more focused on their specific needs, accelerating their progress.
Small group reading activity where students choose their own book and are grouped based on book selection. Students use notes to guide their reading and discussion; discussion topics are student-generated. The teacher serves as a facilitator, not a group member or instructor. Students are evaluated by teacher observation and student self-evaluation