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Terms in this set (65)
industrial Revolution: where did it start? Why did it start there?
It started in Great Britain because they had the land, labor, capital, transportation, and political stability.
What is capitalism? How did it change society's class system?
An economic system endorsing free trade, open market, and private ownership. It allowed the wealth gap to widen between the rich and the poor. Created a larger and more wealthy middle class
What were the economic motives for Europe's New Imperialism?
Need for more raw materials and need for new markets to sell their goods
What were the political motives for Europe's New Imperialism?
National pride; an empire was viewed as greatness. Each country wanted to put its flag on much of the world as possible to demonstrate their strength as an empire.
What were the social motives for Europe's New Imperialism?
End slavery, Social Darwinism, White Man's Burden, Westernization; to bring progress to nations and "civilize" the "uncivilized"
What is the "White Man's Burden"?
Europeans thought they had the right and duty to bring the results of their progress to other countries. They had to introduce their way of life to them so they could become more civilized.
What is Social Darwinism?
The white race was more superior and more fit for life than any other race.
What were some of the forces that allowed the Europeans to imperialize other countries?
The invention of the maxim gun, Medicinal advancements, Tribal disunity within Africa, Ease of control - building an infrastructure(RR's, telegraph) in these regions
Why was the British Empire the greatest of the 19th century?
"The sun never set on the British Empire." They had so much control that the sun always shined on Britain's territory.
What was the purpose of the Berlin Confrence?
To split Africa up evenly between the European powers without armed conflict.
What was the Japanese response to pressure from imperial powers (United States)?
Japan began to modernize so they could compete with the western powers. They increased their industrialization in hopes to be like the western nations. This was called the Meiji Restoration!
How were the Japanese and Chinese different when faced with imperialism from the west?
Chinese absolute monarchs took longer to modernize and industrialize because they wanted to keep their power
Whereas, Japan had accepted the change of modernization and could then build an empire.
WHO UNIFIED GERMANY? HOW DID HE DO IT?
Otto Von Bismarck controlled Germany through his use of the "blood and iron" policy. REALPOLITIK
What were the causes of WWI?
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism
WHAT WERE WWI'S NEW WEAPONS AND TECHNOLOGY?
Machine gun, Heavy Artillery, Airplane, Tank, Poison Gas, Submarine
WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF THESE NEW TECHNOLOGIES ON WARFARE DURING WW1?
These new technologies increased the death rate and made war more deadly, costing the countries millions of lives.
WHY WAS THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES CALLED "A PEACE BUILT ON QUICKSAND"?
Germany was punished very severely, Germany was left out of League of Nations, Territorial Losses for Germany, Military Restrictions on Germany, War Guilt Claus
WHAT IS MARXISM/COMMUNISM?
Revolution of the lower class workers/Proletariat
against the factory owners/Bourgeoisie, Revolution will then set up a classless society where all people were equal, no need for government
HOW IS LENINISM DIFFERENT THAN MARXISM?
Leninism= small group of professional revolutionaries would lead the proletariat in revolution and then would lead the the country While Marxism= dictatorship of the people, Did not have any form of government and everyone was considered equal
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE CAUSES OF FRENCH AND RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
Oppressive/absolute ruler who won't share his power with the people, Weak leader - out of touch with his people; poor decision making
King Louis XVI & Czar Nicholas II, Failing economy - bread shortages, France had helped with American Rev., Russia had helped with WWI
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN RUSSIAN REVOLUTION AND CHINESE REVOLUTION
Both overthrew a long-standing ABSOLUTE RULER, Qing Emperor in China & Czar Nicholas II in Russia, The PRO-DEMOCRATIC governments set up in each country
China's Nationalist Gov't Russia's Provisional Gov't, These gov'ts did not last long and fell to COMMUNISM
Mao Zedong-People's Rep. of China & Lenin -USSR
WHAT 2 GROUPS FOUGHT IN RUSSIAN THE CIVIL WAR... WHO WON?
The Red Army (Bolsheviks) vs. The White Army (Anti-communists) Red army won
WHAT IS THE U.S.S.R.?
Stands for "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics", Created after Russia became communist/ after the civil war
WHAT 2 GROUPS FOUGHT IN CHINESE CIVIL WAR... WHO WON?
Nationalists (pro-democracy) vs. Communists, Mao Zedong led the Communists to victory!
What are the similarities and differences between Communism and Fascism (in practice)?
Similarities: Both wanted economic recovery; totalitarian leadership- no other parties; empire building.
Difference: Fascism supported social classes Communism -wanted a classless society
What is the main difference between Fascism in Germany (Nazism) & Fascism in Italy?
Germany- to create a Germany empire consisting only of Aryan race, or pure blooded Germans.
Italy- take Italy back to the Roman empire days, restore a large empire (but not purifying the Italian race).
What is appeasement?
Giving in to an aggressor in order to avoid conflict.
Give one example of appeasement.
Munich Agreement: Great Britain, France, and Italy signed an agreement that allowed Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland a part of Czechoslovakia that had many ethnic German people.
What is isolationism?
A policy of limiting a nation's international relations so that it could exist in peace and harmony by itself in the world.
What were the causes of WWII?
Militarism - Countries like Japan took pride in the size and strength of their militaries.
Rise of Fascism
The Great Depression - economic troubles in Europe
German bitterness b/c of the Treaty of Versailles
Who were the Axis Powers of WWII?
Germany, Italy, japan
Where were the Germans stopped in their conquest of North Africa?
They were stopped at the battle of El Alamein in Egypt. They were forced to turn west but met with Allied forces in Tunisia where they were finally defeated.
What is the significance of Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union?
Hitler wanted control of the Soviet Union's oil-rich Caucasus region. With this invasion Hitler broke the Non Aggression Agreement with the USSR
What strategy was most effective for the US in the Pacific?
Island hopping - Hopping island to island past strong Japanese points, Their strategy was to capture islands one by one while advancing towards Japan and bypassing and isolating those that were not well defended. They used air power to cut supply lines and starve enemy troops.
What 2 super powers emerged from WWII conflict?
US AND USSR
What was the Holocaust?
The systematic, state-sponsored, persecution, and murder of Jews and Nazis.
Compare the League of Nations and the United Nations
League of Nations:
•Formed after WW1
•Created in June 28 1919
•Failed to work appropriately
•United States was not a part of it
•United Nations - successful b/c US and USSR joined
•Created after WW2 in 1945
•Created to replace the League of Nations
What were the problems common to newly independent countries after WW2?
Newly independent countries struggled with political instability. They were also hurting economically because of the effects of WW2.
What was the Cold War?
Diplomatic tensions existing between the US and the USSR after WW2
What was the iron curtain?
Physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas. It was a Soviet attempt to block itself and the satellite states from open contact with the West and non-controlled Soviet areas
Give an example of Soviet repression during the Cold War.
1950's- Hungarian Imre Nagy creates a new pro-democratic government, USSR overcomes the revolutionary freedom fighters, Nagy is removed from power & executed, government is overthrown.
Provide 3 examples of Cold War conflicts
Korea was divided at the end of WW2 causing the super powers to get involved - no winner, Korea remains divided today - communist north and democratic south.
•Vietnam was divided into the communist north and anti-communist south. North wins - Communist Vietnam united today.
•Cuba & USSR form an alliance leading to a nuclear missile crisis that almost led to a nuclear war in 1962.
What is NATO?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, An alliance of ten western nations, the United States and Canada
What is the WARSAW pact?
A 1955 defense alliance between the USSR and Eastern European nations(Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania and East Germany) to protect against capitalist attack
What Cold War conflict contributed to the downfall of the USSR?
The Soviet Afghan War from 1979-1989
What is Perestoika?
The policy or practice of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system in the USSR, promoted by Mikhail Gorbachev. The economy allowed for some private ownership ending the strict rules of a command economy.
What is glasnost?
The policy put in place by Mikhail Gorbachev that allowed a more open government and also allowed for the free flow of ideas and information.
What caused the breakup of the USSR?
At the end of the Cold War, the USSR was in great economic trouble. The liberal reforms, Perestroika & Glasnot that Mikhail Gorbachev put in place contributed to change in the USSR. The Eastern block of satellite nations began to break away from the Soviet Union and their policy of communism
What were Deng's 4 Modernizations in China?
Policy for progress in agriculture, industry, defense, and science and technology.
What was the significance of Britain's Balfour Declaration?
A short letter written in 1917 by Arthur Balfour to Britain's most well-known Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild. It expressed the British government's support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
What were/ are the causes of the disputes between the Israelis and Palestinians?
Both Israel and Palestine lay claim to the same territory because it had been their historical and religious homeland
What was the scientific revolution?
PROVIDED A new way of thinking about the natural world. It was based upon careful observation and a willingness to question accepted beliefs.
What were the effects of the scientific revolution upon the Catholic Church?
Scientists' observations didn't match ancient/Catholic beliefs so they were persecuted by the Church for challenging traditional beliefs!
What was the enlightenment?
18th c. European Age of Reason when thinkers applied the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
How did enlightenment ideas challenge the power of absolute rulers?
•Reason - its reasonable and logical that all men are equal
•Nature - natural laws apply to all human beings
•Happiness - all humanity deserves to be happy
•Progress - all men deserve the opportunity to progress and advancement
•Liberty - why can't all men be free and equal?
What were the beliefs of John Locke?
Natural Rights - Life, Liberty, and Property. Fundamental to U.S.
What did John Locke's beliefs and the beliefs of other enlightenment thinks bring about in America and Europe?
Declaration of Independence And a Declaration of the rights of man
Who were the Enlightenment Despots?
Catherine the Great of Russia, Frederick the Great - Prussia, Joseph II - Austria
What was D.O.R.O.M.A.C.?
France's Old Regime was ended with the adoption of the Declaration of the Rights of Man that showed the influence of Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution. It stated that men are born and remain free and equal in rights (liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression).
What was the relationship between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution?
The most significant connection between the Enlightenment and the French Revolution was that the ideas of this movement CAUSED THIS REVOLUTION.
Causes of the French Revolution
*The Old Regime
•High taxes - Economic problems
•A weak leader - King Louis XVI
•ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS : Disturbing questions raised by members of the Third Estate
Robespierre's Reign of Terror!
Robespierre makes a connection between virtue and terror. He executes the "enemies"of his Republic of Virture- 100,000's are killed including Queen Marie Antoinette until Robespierre is finally beheaded.
How was napoleons invasion of Russia a big mistake?
Russia's "scorched earth" tactics and the severe winter weather
What was Napoleon's greatest contribution?
What did the Congress of Vienna achieve for Europe?
collective security & peaceful stability for the entire
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