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Chapter 1: Introduction
Terms in this set (20)
Definition of Psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
actions we can observe and measure
Two types of Mental Processes
Cognition/Thinking and Emotions/Feelings
memory, language, problem solving
when and why we feel things, emotional recognition,
Goals of Psychology
1. Describe behavior
2. Predict behavior
3. Explain behavior
4. Change or control behavior
Wundt and Tichener
i) consciousness can be broken down into its components
ii) systematic observation of our own mental processes
Problem -> every person's processes are different
William James: consciousness serves an adaptive purpose
i) provides useful functions for survival
ii) if a behavior is helpful, it stays. If not, it goes away
Sigmund Freud: behavior is influenced by unconscious thoughts and desires
i) sexual/destructive in nature
ii) used hypnosis, dreams, and association
Harry Harlow: loving relationships important with monkeys
i) examines the adaptedness of mental processes
ii) related to functionalism in this way
JB Watson and BF Skinner: behavior is learned and observed, and we should only study what we can see.
i) studying consciousness is too hard because it cannot be observed or measured.
Max Wertheimer: to understand the consciousness, we must study the whole, not just the individual elements.
i) "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts"
Elric Neisser: founder of cognitive revolution, used computer as a metaphor for researching "thinking"
i) reasoning, decisions, memory, reading, and language
Rogers: free will; goals of life is a process
Maslow: hierarchy of needs; basics needs come first
i) goal of life is "self-actualization"
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Food, Safety, Love and Belonging, Esteem, and Self-Actualization
biological processes underlie our behavior
i) chemical balance, gene expression, brain activity, etc
layers of our social environment affect us as individuals
i) individuals, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy in that order
Eclecticism: The Contemporary Approach
most professions take ideals from multiple perspectives to answer questions about behavior and mental processes
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