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Terms in this set (73)
It made things accessible for farmers and industries to communicate better and transport different things. Railroads made up a big part of cities, and it stimulated jobs in different areas. Helped with the production of steel, coal, and timber.
How did Railroads impact Industrialization and city growth?
Telephone, the lightbulb
What new industries developed after the civil war
John D. Rockefeller- oil industry
Andrew Carnegie- steel industry
Who were the leaders in these industries?
For markets markets who had agriculture. You could make money off of the cattle by selling them. There was a demand for beef.
Why was there a demand for cattle ranching?
Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land. They had to cultivate the land for 5 years. This manly happened on the Great Plains.
What was the Homestead Act of 1862
Barbed wire to keep cattle and herds in their place.
What new inventions were seen on farms?
China and Mexico, to produce and farm fruits in places like Claifornia
Where were immigrants coming from and why?
What new cities were growing?
People got excited, and moved on leaving a bad environment. People were so busy expanding, forcing, and becoming wealthier that they lost sight of what they were doing to nature. The modern environmental movement. People set aside natural preserves, and started national parks such as yellow stone. There was a natural park movement. Antiphonal Audubon Society started
Why did cities become polluted? What was done to fix it?
Who devised the theory of social Darwinism
Looks better and happy from the outside looking in, but at the same time their were hardships
What was the gilded age
Who should survive?
What question did social Darwinism answer
Wealthy and educated should thrive
If you are poor or uneducated you deserve to be that way
Describe survival of the fittest
If you are poor you stay poor and if your rich, you stay rich
What did social Darwinism create in scoiety
Who was in charge of the American Federation of labor (AFL)
John d. Rockefeller
Who was the boss of standard oil
Buy out the rest of the companies
What do monopolies do
Owning all of the parts of a business
Simple terms: what is vertical integration?
Owning many parts of one section of a business
Simple terms: what is horizontal integration?
Showing the large reduction of the death rate and in the less keenly realized but still more important reduction in sickness rate.
What did Waring identify as the greatest benefit from street cleaning?
It made them sick, and it made them feel like being dirty was ok. It made their environment unsafe, and soon bad business took place there.
According to Waring, what effects did the sanitation problem in New York have on its residents?
They make sure nails were off the streets for the horses. Dust and mud is not as bug as an issue.
What are some of "the many minor ways" in which improved sanitation improved the quality of life
in New York?
Whose book was Street Cleaning, in which he argued that improved sanitary conditions were made possible by the breakdown of the boss system in the city.
Show the horrible, small, not well ventilated and lighted, unclean, smelly tenements that
women workers lived in
What does the working girls of Boston show
No, they just told them what to fix
Did the board of health help them?
the lives of poor people in New York City in the 1870s.
What is "The Life of the Street Rats" describe
with the social settlement movement, or settlement house movement, as her Hull House in Chicago was that movement's center.
What is Jane Addams always associated with
marched mill children—many of whom had missing fingers and other work-related deformities—from Pennsylvania to President Theodore Roosevelt's home in Long Island, New York.
Who is Mary Harris Jones, also know as "Mother Jones"
The lightbulb a slight weight steel
Name two inventions that changed Americans lives
They were people who invested money in a product or enterprise in order to make a profit
How did entrepreneurs encourage industrialization
Skyscrapers and suspension bridges
What innovations were made possible by the Bessemer process
It allowed them to grow in economic power
How did industrialization cause the United States to be more involved in world affairs
Justify beliefs like discrimination
Name one social condition that people used Social Darwinism to justify
Many of these things gave business men an unfair advantage
What details support the opinion that big business had a negative impact on the United States
Monopoly and horizontal integration
Name two methods that businesses used to increase their profits
Companies assign their stock to a board of trustees. The board of trustees then combine the stock into a new organization.
What is a trust
Eugene V. Debbs
Who was the leader that called for a nationwide strike against the Pullman company
Workers ended up owing most of their wages to the company
How did company towns negatively impact the workers who lived in them
The Knights of labor sought broad social reform. The AFL focused on issues such as wages and work conditions
How did the goals of the Knights of labor differ from those of the AFL
Raising wages and better working conditions
Identify the main goals of organized labor
Method developed in the mid 1800s for making steel more efficiently.
Strong steel made a possible host of innovations, including skyscrapers and the elevators to service them. The construction of suspension bridges was made possible, and made transportation more efficient.
What effect did the Bessemer process have on American industry
Company recognized as a legal unit that has rights and liabilities separate from each of its members.
they would pay their workers as little wage as possible or paying as little possible for buying raw materials
List two methods corporations use to maximize their profits
Horizontal integration is System of consolidating many firms in the same business. Standard oil company and -JohnD. Rockefeller used horizontal integration. Vertical integration is System of consolidating firms involved in all steps of a products manufacture. Andrew Carnegie and U.S steel used vertical.
Define horizontal integration and vertical integration and identify a company or an entrepreneur that practiced each
an 1886 labor related protest in Chicago which ended in deadly violence
The impact was that oppositions to unions grew and the Knights of labor membership fell. Employers became even more suspicious of union membership and associating it with violence.
What impact did the Haymarket riot have on the labor movement
Eugene V. Debs led the American Railway union. He had began work in a low level railroad job while still a teenager, working his way up. He had condemned the railroad strike of 1877, which he said was a result of disorginization and corruption within the unions. He organized the A. R. U as an industrial union, grouping all railroad workers together rather than separating them by the job they held. He started the Pullman Strike. Federal troops had to be sent in to end the strike. When Debs refused to, he was imprisoned.
Who was Eugene V. Debbs and how did the government respond to his actions in the Pullman strike
It made life easier to do simple tasks, and also new technology changed business structures, increasing production and making it faster. This improved the economy.
How did industrialization and new technology affect the economy and society
They used railroads to transport their goods and expand their businesses across the country, which helped increase their profit, therefore making America one of the most economically powerful countries in the world.
How did big businesses shape the American economy in the late 1800s and early 1900s
There was more tension, and the struggles increased. There was suspicion of labor unions, and employees were then punished by their employer and the government punished strikers. Labor unions also helped with work conditions and wages.
How did the 'rise of labor unions shape relations among workers, big businesses, and government
The civil war, which made a need for more clothes and food. It increased the need for better communication too. The railroad increased efficiency and productivity.
What caused the increased demand for manufactured goods in the U.S?
G- Geography- good landscape for the population to grow, where you are
D-Demography- the majority of a population or the make up of the people that live there
L- Law- business friendly, giving many patents
What is GDL
Coal, iron, oil, initially water, amber Waves of grain.
What materials did we have to power our nation
Many immigrants came to the U.S
Why does the population grow so rapidly during the Industrial Revolution?
Burgeoning cities, such as New York City, Cleveland, Minneapolis, Chicago
Where in the country were immigrants settling
Made the U.S a single area of commerce- like a giant customs union. The Supreme Court interpreted the laws in a very business friendly way
What was the commerce clause
They encourage inventions, and innovation. The idea that anybody can be an inventor. Its federal approval of the government for you to do an invention and it helps you keep your ideas safe.
In what ways did patents increase innovation
The U.S was at the time was seen by Europeans as a developing economy, and investments in America offered much higher returns than those available in Europe.
Why were foreigners investing in America
What year did the majority of the workforce work in America?
What percentage of the world's total industrial output was from the U.S.?
Railroads and transportation
What was a key to American Industrial success?
Railroads increased commerce and integrated the American Market, which allowed national brands to emerge, like Ivory Soap and A&P Grocery Stores. They gave us time zones, which were created by the major railroad companies to make shipping and passenger transport more standard
What ways did railroads change the U.S
A railroad agent who turned a $50 investment in watches into an enormous mail order empire, and railroads made it possible for him and his eventual partner Roebuck- to ship watches and then jewelry and then pretty much everything , including unconstructed houses throughout the country.
Who were Sears and Roebuck
Supervisors to supervise supervisors. When you started to see the middle class, who could start to afford fun things to do.
What are middle managers
Owners of a company who were not day to day managers, because railroads were among the first publicly transported corporations. So they needed a lot of capital to build tracks and stations. THEY WERE THE FIRST CAPTAINS OF INDUSTRY.
Who were Vanderbilt, Stanford, and Carnegie?
She was a great opponent of capitalism, she was looking out for the workers and was anti monopoly.
Who is Ida Tarbell
They often came from humble origins, took risks, and became very wealthy, some of their methods were frequently unscrupulous. They often drove competitors out of business, and generally cared very little for their workers.
How are industrialists heroes and villains
He started off as a clerk for a Cleveland merchant and eventually became the richest man in the world. He ruthlessly bought up so many rivals that by the late 1880s standard oil controlled 90% of the U.S. industry
How did Rockefeller make his money? What percentage of the industry did
Who was the steel guy
The benefits of economic growth were shared and divided unevenly. Due to a growing population, particularly of immigrant workers, there was job insecurity. And also booms and busts meant depressions. This also hit the working poor the hardest. Also laborer ws commonly worked 60 hours per week with no pensions or injury compensation.
Why were worker poor during times of industrialization
The first national union, which was headed by Terence V. Powderly, which grew from 9 members in 1870 to 728,000 by 1884. They admitted unskilled workers, black workers, and women.
What were the Knights of Labor? Who did they allow in?
During a strike against McCormick Harvesting Company, a policemen killed one of the strikers, and in espouse there was a rally in Chicago's Haymarket a Square at which a bomb killed 7 police officers. Then firing upon the crowd, the police killed 4 people. People started associating the Knights of Labor with violence, and soon the membership in the union became 0.
What were the Haymarket riots
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