102 terms

Western Civilization II Clep

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Treaty of Westphalia
-Ended the Thirty Years' Wars
-Set stage for development of Modern Europe
-rules given authority to determine the faith of the regions they ruled.
-signaled decline of papacy influence
-paved way for secularization.
-recognized independence of Swiss Confederecy.
Enlightened Despots
-Joseph II, Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great
-embraced principles of enlightenment, especially rationality, religious toleration, freedom of speech,private property.
Robert Owen
-founder of Utopian socialism.
-"no one was responsible for his will and his own actions because his whole character is formed independently of himself"
-religion= ridiculous imagination.
-yes to putting out system, no to factory system.
What treaty did the Big Four of WWI negotiate?
Versailles Treaty was negotiated by_______.
Before Napoleon became emperor he was...
______ was first consul before he was emperor.
Edmund Burke
-wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France. Conservatism originated from_______ _____'s writing.
-believed society was a contract: temporary agreement between gov't and its citizens. Denounced French Revolution.
New Economic Policy
allowed peasants to sell some of what they produced.
Soviet-Afghan War
-Afghan fighters were provided with weapons by the US and China, Soviets withdrew completely from Afghan in 1989
-helped bring end of the Soviet Union.
Countries formed after WW2
Israel, by the United Nations.
Sputnik
Soviet's first to launch a satellite in, 1956, called______ went into space. America panicked and built a spaceship.
Reform Act of 1832
favored industries.
liberals
-did not support universal suffrage.
-believed all people entitled to civil rights, did not support equal political rights.
-did not want to share power with lower classes.
-limit right to those who own property.
Jeremy Bentham
-developed philosophy of utilitarianism.
French Revolution
-Started from Tennis Court Oath in 1789 through Napolean giving up his throne in 1814
-Legal equality and justice brought to all social classes.
-french society began to view people based on skill rather than family/birth.
-many revolutionary ideals ended.
-Ended feudalism and manorialism.
-but, monarchy eventually restored.
United Nations
-replaced League of Nations.
-authorized a conflict against communist forces from N. Korea and China.
-main purpose: pick up where the League left off.
-origin of UN - Atlantic Charter.
Atlantic Charter
Defined Allied (Britain and American) goals of post World War 2.
-no territorial expanding and changes.
-restoration of self-government to those deprived of it;
-free access to raw materials;
-less trade restrictions
-global cooperation for economic and social conditions for all
-freedom of the seas;
-abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations.
Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944
made the US dollar the world's reserve currency.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
-marks the period when the two world superpowers came the closest to war.
-Had Kennedy invade Cuba, soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev would probably have attacked the U.S.
Brezhnev Doctrine
-Soviets reserved to themselves the right to interfere in the domestic politics of communist nations.
The War of Austrian Succession
-weakened France politically and financially and contributed to the long-standing and increasing economic crisis that was the primary contributor to the French revolution.
Whigs
-Puritans who supported religious freedom and the power of Parliament.
-group emerged in opposition to king Charles II's brother James II.
-limit royal authority, increase parliamentary power.
Tories
Supported Kings Charles II, favored state religion over religious freedom.
Treaty of Paris
-French and Indian War ended.
-France gave up many of its North American colonies.
Italian Fascist Party
-antidemocratic and anticommunist
-nationalistic.
-violence and warfare cleansed and fortified the body politics.
-appealed to businessmen and laborers
Lateran Pact of 1929
Mussolini's______________ with Catholic church.
-knew most Italians were Catholics thus gave stamp of approval.
-declare Catholicism the official religion.
-church lands tax exempt.
-church rule over marriage.
Jean-Paul Sartre
-Existentialist philosopher made Exis. popular.
-but Kierkegaard was considered the founder of modern existentialism.
John Stuart Mill
expressed his humane liberalism in his writings "On liberty" and "Subjection of Women"
-liberal.
-supports women's rights.
Empiricism
-all knowledge comes through experience.
-men began with blank slate
Lend-Lease Act
Churchill persuaded the U.S. to supply war. _________was passed by Congress. Made US possible to support Britain while still be "neutral".
Brest - Litovsk Treaty
-Russia's peace agreement with Germany in WWI
-with Central Powers, marking Russia's exit from World War I.
-Russia surrendered most of its Western territory.
Mikhail Gorbachev
-reformer/leader who presided over the end of the USSR who believed communism=good. But in practice, corrupted.
-perestroika and glasnost allowed more political liberty.
-allowed private property
-allowed more political liberty
Bourgeois
-originally middle class.
-members of wealthiest social class.
-In Marxist theory - class who owns means of production.
-contemporary social theory - means the ruling class of capitalist societies.
Francois Voltaire
-French Enlightenment Writer.
-separation of church and state.
-"Candide" urges readers to improve society by putting Enlightenment ideas to work.
-freedom or religion and expression.
-crush traditional religion!
-"Ignorant Philospher" - criticized religious intolerance also.
Social Contract Theory
John Locke believed that people submitted passively to government because they found it convenient to do so, not because they acknowledged any divine right on the part of the monarchy.
Louis XIV
-viewed himself as representative of God.
-aka Sun King.
-longest reign in European History (72 years)
Treaty of Utrecht
-put an end to plans of Louis XIV
-restored international balance of power
-made England naval power of the world.
-land gains of Austrians, Dutch, England
-transport slaves to Spanish America
Emergence of Russia as a major power developed under the reign of_______
Under the reign of Peter the Great,_______ emerged as a major power.
Utilitarianism
-"greatest good for the greatest number"
-Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
-maximizing utility (happiness + reduce suffering.
Treaty of Frankfurt
France lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany
France occupied Mexico during...
During the year 1800_____ occupied_____.
Glorious Revolution
-named that way because no blood shed
-King James II overthrown.
>monarchs now are subject to constraints from parliament.
-William + Mary now Monarchs.
-passage of Bill of Rights = no possibility of a Catholic monarchy, ended moves toward monarchical absolutism.
-French Kings power significantly reduced.
>constitutional monarchy came about (instead of absolute)
-cabinet and prime minister introduced.
Agricultural revolution paved way for...
_________ __________ paved way for the availability of workers for industrial revolution.
Who came up with the heliocentric theory?
Copernicus came up with the ___________ ______.
Guerrilla warfare
-Spain introduced the first form of_________ ________ against Napoleon.
-irregular warfare: sabotage, raid, element of surprise.
What did John Locke believe?
-ruler could rule only so long as he/she kept the people's trust, by respecting the inherent rights human beings possess.
-ruler bad? replace!
-human mind = tabula rosa = blank slate.
thus ppl born equal.
-father of liberalism.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
-1939, soviets and German's Nazis signed a nonaggression pact, also called the_______________.
-The pact publicly declared that the two countries would not go to war against one another.
-divide Poland between them.
-Pact also called for return of much of the territory lost to Russia.
Marshall Plan
-helped Europeans to rebuild their countries with funds.
-U.S. rich and generous.
-Plan made during Cold War.
-helped ensure US economy would remain strong.
-helped by making it possible for Europeans to buy American imports.
Immanuel Kant's Philosophy
-during Enlightenment 18th century.
-"critique of Pure Reason."
-aimed to write reason w/ experience.
-you can't really know if there is a God or not.
-we need to think autonomously, free of hte dictates of external authority.
-What's right is right, what's wrong is wrong.
-No grey area.
-absolute, objective, moralism, get morality from rationality.
Congress of Vienna
-prevent any country from dominating others.
-maintain peace in Europe
-redrawing of map.
-establish/limit boundaries of France.
-served as model for League of Nations.
-Austria, France, Russia, UK and Prussia.
Edict of Nantes
-Louis XIV weakened France by revoking __________, which had allowed for some religious tolerance to Protestants and French Huguenots.
-also opened path for secularism and tolerance.
Petition of Right 1628
claim that English subjects possessed basic rights that no king can trample on.
Navigation Acts and main purpose it served England.
-laws that restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies.
-Goals: force colonial development into lines favorable to England.
-stop direct trade with Netherlands, France, and other European countries.
-basically, restrict foreign trade.
Denis Diderot was Known for...
-co-founder, chief editor, contributor of Encylopedie
-He's part of French Enlightenment.
-attacked the church.
Montesquieu
-philosopher
-believed in Checks and Balance
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-"...general will..."
-Social Contract
-Gov't = necessary evil.
-we need to submit to the general will.
William Harvey
Heart circulation research
Bacon
-wrote Novum Organu
-invented scientific method
NATO
-counterpart to Warsaw Pact (soviets)
-NATO includes US, Great Britain, France, Spain, Italy.
-at end of cold war, many countries of Warsaw joined NATO.
-made to provide defense against Soviets.
Marxism-Leninism
-promotes development and creation of an communist society.
-purge all that is bourgeois or idealist.
-implement atheism, rid of religion.
-includes Lenin's imperialism.
-focus on underdeveloped countries.
-confronts socialism and capitalism.
perestroika
-"restructuring"
-refers to restructuring of the soviet political and economic system.
How did Lenin come to power?
-Lenin demanded that Russia exit WWI immediately, even if it meant loss. Lenin received growing support throughout the Russian armed forces, which would ultimately be key to his seizing of power.
-seized power from bourgeoisie.
-help from Leon Trotsky.
-help from Germans.
-build up connections from military.
What countries were not invited to the Peace of Paris?
-Germany
-Russia
Results of Stalin's 5 year plans
-economically successful - was not effected by the depression.
-politically successful, strengthened Stalin's leadership.
-but near collapse of Soviet agriculture and death of millions from famine.
-Industrialization achieved at a great cost.
Dreyfus Affair
-Captain Alfred _______ of French Army wrongly accused of spying for the Germans, thus, imprisoned.
-Famous french writer Emile Zola came to Dreyfus' defense. Dreyfus pardoned eventually, but with help of many Jewish activists.
-bottom line: exposed antisemitism, and called for independent Jewish state (Palestine).
glasnost
-by Gorbachev
-called for increased openness and transparency in gov't institutions in Soviet Union.
Geneva Convention
-Western conventions agree to care for wounded enemies, no torture, no deprive them of basic needs while in captivity.
-enemy family members know they're dead.
-red cross symbols not valid targets of war.
-no holding weapons in red cross vehicles!
Adam Smith and his economic ideas
-laissez-faire
-gov't should let economy run on its own.
-"invisible hand" would shape economy for the good of all who pursue their own self-interest.
-wrote "The Wealth of Nations"
Socialism and how it rose
-Industrial workers threatened to bring about reform.
-left-wing parties propelled belief in liberal reform.
-stirred by Henry Mayhew.
-labor unions formed for better pay, reduced hours, etc.
-major strikes.
-Britain formed Labor Party to Parliament.
-Fabian Society- gradual evolution towards socialism.
Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928
-international agreement on not to use war to resolve conflicts.
-aka Pact of Paris
-Signed by Germany, France, U.S. etc.
-ineffective.
merchantilism.
-by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, centralized French economy by employing____________.
-belief: limited amount of wealth in the world.
-goal: maximize gold the nation had in its treasury.
-avoid "free trade".
Social Darwinism
-by Herbert Spencer
-applied Darwin's basic ideas to individuals, societies, nations.
-survival of the fittest
-most fit had moral duty to rule the weak.
-competing nations started (Britain, Germany, etc.)
David Hume and his beliefs
-empiricism
-involved in Scottish Enlightenment.
-argued against credibility of miracles, questions religion.
-all beliefs people have are derived from perceptions of their senses.
What did Pascal invent?
-a calculating machine devised an influential theory of chance and probability.
-barometer - proved air pressure diminished with altitude.
Mussolini
started Fascism.
-aggressive nationalism and racism.
-authoritarian gov't.
-antidemocratic.
-violence and warfare cleansed and fortified the body politic.
-anticommunist
-Italian Dictator
Napoleon's Continental System
-sought to break Britain economically by preventing European trade with it and which provided for commercial laws among European nations that favored France.
-basically cut Britain's trade with Berlin Decree.
What Country was neutral during WWI and WWII?
Spain.
Crimean War
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires (French and Britain) fought primarily in the ______ Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
Anschluss
incorporation of Austria into Germany by the Nazi.
Olympe de Gouges
French feminist who wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791.
Thomas Malthus
English economist: Said that population tends to increase more rapidly than food supplies. Influenced Darwin.
Vichy Regime
The government in France under German control. The regime promoted antisemiticism, fear of foreigners, and promoted the ideals of Nazism among French sympathizers.
English Civil War
• three years long
• King vs. Parliament
• Parliament wins
• King Charles I refused to accept defeat
• Oliver Cromwell stepped in and captured king & dismissed his supporters on Parliament.
•After English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell (puritan) presided over military dictatorship in England.
Bousset
Wrote "Politics drawn from the Very Words of Scripture". Argued for Divine Rights and Absolutism.
philosophes
French Thinkers during the Enlightenment. Deists.
Most important commodity of the Second Industrial Revolution...
Besides Oil, steel.
Berlin Conference
(1884-1885) During European Imperialism, European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. This began the process of imperializing Africa. Contributed to "Scramble for Africa" to prevent war.
Triple Entente
Britain, Russia, France, one of the groups of the Great War.
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria, Italy
Marx believed
that the utopian future of humankind depended on the new industrial working class - the proletariat- liberating itself from the oppression of the capitalist system.
What cease to exist after the Great War?
Austro-Hugarian Empire and Ottoman Empire
Russo-Japan War
Europe's first lost to Asian country.
The Beginning of World War 2
War started 1939, Hitler moved military and airforce (Luftwaffe) to invade Poland with blitzkreig.
Truman Doctrine
US supported Greek Civil War and other countries and to prevent all of Berlin from falling into the hands of the Soviets and commmunism.
Dienbienphu
French suffered defeat in Vietnam. If Vietnam becomes communist, then, according to the Domino Theory, the other Southeast Asian nations would also fall into communism. Thus, US tried to prevent that.
Operation Desert Storm
was sparked by Iraq's annexation of Kuwait with an invasion of Iraq. US feared incorrectly that Iraq held weapons of mass destruction.
Treaty of Maastricht
called for common currency across western Europe.
Bolsheviks
Led by Vladimir Lenin (its first leader), it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WWI
Imperialism
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. A policy of extending your rule over foreign countries. ie. Berlin Conference → Scramble of Africa
Napoleon did not think he had an _____. He was declared____________.
______did not think he had an equal. He was declared King of Italy
NATO made to_____________.
provide defense against the Soviets.
Blitzkrieg
Poland, Belgium, France, Netherlands experienced it.
Reign of Terror
most closely associated with Committee of Public Safety., the period of Robespierre's rule; period of killing during French Revolution.