BOT 121 Midterm

main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell
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what is the mitochondria's main function?site of cellular respiration, sugar and starch broken down into usable energywhat is the vacuole's main function?helps maintain cell pressure, storage and breakdown of cellular waste products, storage of water soluble dyes call anthocyaninsstages of mitosisstart with a single cell, DNA is duplicated, cell split into two, results with two genetically identical cellswhat are meristematic cells?actively dividing cells at the tip of every stem and root that have the potential to become any cellwhere does primary growth occur?apical meristemstissues made up of only one cell typesimple tissuestissues made of multiple cell typescomplex tissuesthe outer tissue system covering the plantdermal tissue systemthe tissue system that carries out photosynthesis, stores photosynthetic products, and helps support the plantground tissue systemthe tissue system that conducts water and solutes throughout the plantvascular tissue systemcell types in dermal tissueepidermal cells, guard cells, trichomes, root hairsdermal tissue alive or dead at maturityalivestomata are made of what kind of cells?guard cellswhere is ground tissue located?between the dermal tissue and vascular tissuedermal tissue is made of three tissue typesparenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchymaparenchyma characteristicsliving at maturity, thin primary cell walls, large central vacuole, can take on many shapesparenchyma functionphotosynthesis, storage, transportation of food and watercollenchyma characteristicscomposed of living cells with thick primary cell wallscollenchyma functionflexible support for organs such as leaves and herbaceous stemssclerenchyma characteristicsdead at maturity, thick and rigid secondary cell wallssclerenchyma functionsupport and protectiontwo types of sclerenchyma cellsfibers and sclereidselongated sclerenchyma cellsfibersprovide structural rigidity and stiffening to leaves, stems, and rootsfibersform the hard tissues of nuts, seed coats, etc., compact shape, may be present together with thin-walled parenchyma cellssclereidscontinuous tissue throughout the plant in which substances are transportedvascular tissuevascular tissue is composed of these two tissuesxylem and phloemxylem functiontransports water and mineral saltsxylem is composed of these different types of cellstracheids, vessel elements, fibers, and xylem parenchymacells that are tapered at the ends, but have no holes at the ends. Water passes between this through the pitstracheidslong tubular cells open at both ends, arranged end to end to function like water pipesvessel elementsphloem functiontransports sugars and other organic substancesphloem is composed of these different types of cellssieve tube members, companion cells, phloem fibers, phloem parenchymalong tubular cells with sieve plates in the end walls, arranged end to end, alive but lacking a nucleussieve tube membershelp sieve tube members functioncompanion cellsWhere does cellular division happen in plants?in meristemsWhat are the main functions of a stem?transport, support, storagethese types of plants have no vascular tissue, are short and soft, and reproduce by sporesmossesexamples of seedless vascular plantsferns, horsetailsvascular plant that reproduces by means of an exposed seed, or ovulegymnospermflowering plantsangiospermsinternal stem structure (from outer to inner)epidermal tissue, ground tissue, vascular tissueconducts water, minerals, and sugarvascular tissuestem center, responsible for storage and supportpithouter portion of ground tissuecortexthe outer most layer of cellsepidermisexample of natural fiberhemphorizontal above-ground stems responsible for vegetative reproductionstolonshorizontal below ground stems responsible for vegetative reproductionrhizomesround, water storing stemssucculent stemsunderground storage stem with fleshy leavesbulbsthe swollen end of an underground stemtubersharp and pointed stem for protectionthornthe orientation of a plant in response to lightphototropismexplain how phototropism workswhen light is overhead, the auxin molecules produced by the apical meristem are distributed evenly in the shoot. Once the sunlight shines at an angle, the auxin molecules move to the side farthest from the light and induce the elongation of cells on that side, resulting in a bent shoot toward the lightroot's main functionanchorage, absorption, conduction, storagethe apical bud contains?a shoot apical meristemwhat are the two lateral meristemscork cambium and vascular cambiumwhat protects the root apical meristem?root caphas one main root that grows downward, found in eudicotstaprootno one root is more prominent than the others, found in monocotsfibrous root systemswhat does the root epidermis do?provides protection, absorbs water and minerals from the soil facilitated by root hairsring of cells surrounding vascular cylinderendodermiseach cell of the endodermis is surrounded by a _____________ ________ impregnated with suberin and ligninCasparian stripfunction of the Casparian stripregulation of what enters and leaves the vascular cylinderouter boundary of vascular tissue, just inside the endodermis, layer of meristematic cells were lateral roots developpericyclewhat type of root emerges from the pericycle inside of the primary root?lateral rootcortex characteristicsoccupies the greatest volume of most roots, stores starch, contains amyloplastsorganelles that contain large starch grainsamyloplastsroots that come from a tissue other than the pericycleadventitious rootsadventitious roots that function in supportprop rootsabove-ground adventitious roots that absorb wateraerial rootsthese roots filter salt from seawater, perform gas exchange through lenticelspneumatophorespenetrating roots of parasitic plantshaustoriamost herbaceous plants that demonstrate only primary growth, entire life cycle takes place in one growing seasonannualsneed two seasons from germination to seed formationbiennialsplants that live year after year, woody plants that display secondary growth in their stems and roots, monocots have no secondary growthperennialsafter several years of growth, ____________ plants start to form secondary tissuesperennialformation of wood and bark and widening of stems and rootssecondary growthsecondary growth forms what secondary tissuessecondary xylem, secondary phloem, corkwhat causes an increase in plant girthsecondary growthlocated between primary xylem and primary phloemvascular cambiumwhen a vascular cambium cell divides, it produces either?a new xylem cell toward the inside of the stem or root, or a new phloem cell toward the outsidethe vascular cambium thickens the stem by producing what?secondary xylem and secondary phloemproduced by the cork cambium, which develops from parenchyma cells in the cortexcorkreplaces the epidermiscorkcork cells are ___________ and impregnated with ___________ _______dead, suberin waxwhy is cork constantly regenerated?to protect the vascular cambiumcork oakQuercus suberwhere is cork oak mostly grown?Portugal, other Mediterranean countriescoyote brushBaccharis pilulariscoast live oakQuercus agrifoliawhere is coast live oak from?coastal areas from Sonoma to Baja Californiacoast redwoodSequoia sempervirenswhere are coast redwoods distributed?along the fog belt of northern California, generally below 2500 feet