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Terms in this set (238)
Can be used in addition to adequate
to prevent contrast renal toxicity. According to Qbank...
A kidney that
move with respiration. Indicative of a kidney with a
that fixed to its surrounding tissue.
can determine location, size, degree of abscess.
Platelets are acute phase reactants
Like ESR and CRP, platelets can increase in response to
. Reactive thrombocytosis (increased platelets) should be excluded by repeating platelet counts in a few weeks once the infection has passed. Then you know the increased platelets were secondary to infection.
Is used to treat Hairy Cell Leukemia. Pentostatin is used in refractory cases.
HLA-B27 associated syndromes are:
1) Ankylosing Spondylitis
2) Psoriatic Arthritis
3) Reactive Arthritis (aka Reiter Syndrome)
Potassium (K+) in Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Serum levels may appear normal but actual total body potassium can be
due to urinary spillage.
Has an increased risk of
Patients with a history of stones or who are taking high dose Vitamin C or Calcium supplementation should not take Topiramate for their seizures.
Acute Bronchitis duration
in acute bronchitis normally lasts from 2 weeks to 20 days.
Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome
is the most common
cause of nephrotic syndrome.
Discomfort behind the knee with forced
Indicative of a
Most common Risk Factor for Retinal Detachment
Posterior detachment of the Vitreous causes traction on the retina. May present with flashes and floaters or peripheral visual field loss.
Hemolytic Anemia lab findings:
Increased Unconjugated Bilirubin
GLP-1 receptor Agonists (ex. Exenatide)
Can be useful for
H2 Receptor blocker used to treat heartburn, GERD etc.
Presentation: shoulder pain with progressive restriction of shoulder movement (both active and passive) in all directions.
MRI shows thickening of joint capsule and adhesion.
Vitamin B3 supplement can cause
Also can increase
- avoid with
Develops months to years after radiation and is characterized by pain with defecation, diarrhea and sometimes rectal bleeding. On colonoscopy, the mucosa is pale and friable with telangiectases.
conductive hearing loss
due to abnormal bone growth in the middle ear (near Stapes).
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Imaging
is used as initial investigation.
Not to be used as an alternative to TMP-SMX for Urinary Tract Infections. It attains inadequate urinary concentrations.
Pulmonary Embolism Imaging
is the standard choice for detecting PE
HYPOnatremia and increased urine osmolality.
Less specific and sensitive than Lipase for detecting acute pancreatitis.
Amylase levels may even appear
with recurrent pancreatitis, thus lipase is more effective.
Thyroid Nodule Investigation
Fine Needle Aspiration provides the most direct and specific information about a thyroid nodule.
One of the DMARDs used to treat Rheumatoid Arthritis.
toxic to the retina
- make sure to do an eye exam.
Caused by sun exposure and pre malignant. Can lead to squamous cell carcinoma
Leading cause of
acute bacterial diarrhea
More than E. coli, salmonella, shigella etc...
Think Colon Cancer and Colonoscopy!!!
Fine Crackles (velcro)
Interstitial Disease and Pulmonary Fibrosis
Antihypertensive and ADHD drug that can cause
if stopped too abruptly. (alpha agonist)
Used to treat gastroparesis (delayed bowel emptying) and emesis.
Dopamine Antagonist therefore can cause
side effects. Do not give to a patient with Parkinson's disease.
VMA (vanillylmandelic acid) and HVA (homovanillic acid)
Benzodiazepine used for
Can be addictive and abused.
SE: sedation (accidents, falls) and confusion /
Affects males equally to females BUT
(the most serious complication of GERD) and a risk factor for Adenocarcinoma of esophagus is
10 times more common in males
Note risk of
progressing to Adenocarcinoma
from Barrett's is
Pain with prolonged sitting, or climbing / descending stairs.
Look for delta waves - aka ventricular preexcitation syndrome, a form of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT)
Radiofrequency catheter ablation
of accessory AV pathways in WPW eliminates arrhythmias in up to 90% of patients
- can shorten refractory period and enhance conduction over the bypass tract
Side effects of Calcium Channel Blockers (ex. Amlodipine)
ex: ankle edema, dizziness, nausea, hypotension, pulmonary edema
Sexual Dysfunction with Aging
Increase time for sexual arousal
Decreased penile sensitivity
Increase time between erections
Less forceful ejaculation
The body is able to produce Vitamin D and Vitamin K
Angina that occurs when a person is lying down (not necessarily only at night) without any apparent cause. It occurs because gravity redistributes fluids in the body and this makes the heart work harder.
Caused by atria contracting forcefully in an effort to overcome an abnormally stiff or hypertrophic ventricle.
Will not be heard in a patient with
Iron is absorbed better in an
which can be accomplished with the use of vit C products. Agents that raise pH ex (antacids, PPIs, H2 blockers) should be avoided)
HPV 16 and 18
warts and the development of
PEG tube aka Feeding tube
Used frequently for patients with severe
because patients are more restrained.
Expressive Aphasia (mentally sharp but can't articulate words)
Lesion in Frontal Lobe
Most common cause of Syncope
Caused by reflex mediated changes in vascular tone and heart rate.
Used to diagnose a Hypoglycemic Disorder aka
(tumour secreting insulin)
1) Symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia
2) Serum glucose <50 mg/dL (low)
3) Relief of symptoms when glucose is administered
Side Effects include: most commonly nausea and vomiting (can be reduced with
Folic acid supplementation
since methotrexate is a folic acid inhibitor)
Major Side Effects: Liver Toxicity, Pulmonary Toxicity and Bone Marrow Suppression
used for constipation
Avascular Necrosis can be caused by:
Corticosteroids (high dose)
Fracture of Femoral Neck
Sickle Cell Anemia
+ Decompression Sickness and Fatty liver
Used to differentiate between Testicular Torsion and Acute Epididymitis.
Physical lifting of testicles will
the pain of
but NOT testicular torsion. This is because there is relaxation of the tension in the inflamed spermatic cord.
Gonorrhea / Chlamydia
are the most common causes of acute Epididymitis in males.
Stasis, Hypercoagulability and Endotheloal damage are risk factors for developing DVT
Presents with pulmonary hemorrhage and acute glomerulonephritis.
Presence of circulating
anti-glomerular basement membrane proteins
E: Enlarged gums
Y: Yellow-browning of skin
I: Interference with folic acid absorption (hence anemia)
N: Neuropathies: vertigo,
Nuclear Uptake Scan
TI 201 and Tc 99m used to assess myocardial perfusion in people with baseline ECG abnormalities to localize the problem.
Also useful for patients with
limitations of exercise
Leading cause of blindness
Macular Degeneration in individuals 65+
High association with
#1 risk factor.
Transmitted by Mosquito in Subtropical and Tropical areas of the world (
Presents with Fever, Chills, Severe
Aching of head, back and extremities
Most common cause is Ulcerative Colitis (IBD)
Lead pipe appearance on barium
Most common cause of Primary Hyperparathyroidism
Adenoma of single parathyroid gland
Miosis (constriction of pupil), partial ptosis (drooping of upper lid) and anhydrosis (loss of sweating)
caused by interruption of the
Infection of the digital pulp on the terminal phalanx. Extreme pain and pressure in the pulp spaces. Incision and Drainage needed
Cutaneous lesion on the hand that can be caused by HSV-1 or HSV-2
Most commonly seen in health care workers who come in contact with oral secretions (
respiratory therapists, dentists
Not to be confused with
- infection of the skin near the nail bed.
Performed for women
below the age of 30
instead of mammography.
Breasts are radiographically dense at younger age and are difficult to image in fine detail.
- commonly has associated weight loss
Diagnosed by CT
Deep peroneal nerve
Increases production and concentration of Hemoglobin F
Useful for patients with Sickle Cell Disease or Thalassemia patients to reduce need for transfusions.
Lupus Pernio (purplish lesion over face)
Form of Alcohol Withdrawal
Occurs 2 to 10 days after drinking stops
Can be fatal when untreated
Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Most common localization-related epilepsies. Presents with
Pleural Plaques on CXR
Marker of Heart Failure
Released from the heart in response to
volume expansion and pressure overload
inhibits the renin-angiotensin
Acute Pancreatitis marker of poor prognosis
Hypocalcemia due to saponificaiton of Ca2+ by released fatty acids.
Has been shown to delay the progression of cognitive decline / dementia
Careful: interacts with
Best Breast Investigation
Excisional Biopsy is gold standard for breast investigation
Age related progressive bilateral hearing loss
, symmetric and
Untreated Grave's Disease at risk for....
Stress induced catecholamine surge
Fatal Cardia Arrhythmia
Best way to evaluate nutritional status of elderly
Serum Albumin Levels
Gout Crystals made of _____
Pseudogout Crystals made of _____
Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate
Useful for the diagnosis of
Yellow-Orange fluid in CSF associated with
Skull Fracture Symptoms
- Inferior Orbital: numbness of cheek (infraorbital nerve)
- Medial Orbital: limited abduction of eye (blowout fx)
- Basal Skull: Raccoon eyes
- Nasal Fracture: nasal septal hematoma leading to necrosis
- Zygomatic Arch: trismus (jaw muscle spasm)
Used to test IT Band (lateral knee pain)
Pain with varus stress applied to knee flexed at 30 degrees.
Inflammation and fibrosis of the small airways
- Manifestation of
chronic rejection in lung transplant and bone marrow transplants
- Involves small bronchioles
- Obstructive pattern on PFTs (reduced FEV1/ FVC)
appearance on ventilation perfusion scan
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (5-HIAA)
A break down product of
in the urine. Levels are used to detect tumours in the GI tract (ex.
Serum Albumin Levels
Long half life, therefore when levels are low that is indicative of
hepatitis or liver damage. Levels may still be normal in the acute setting before they begin to drop over time.
Alendronate, Risendronate, Ibandronate
Used when T-score is more than 2.5 SD below normal (-2.5)
Used to treat
in both men and women
Very rarely associated with
osteonecrosis of jaw
and atypical fractures.
Should be taken with 6-8 oz of water at least 30 minutes before anything else in the day (
) and because of gastroesophageal irritation, the patient should remain
upright for 30 minutes
after taking it.
MOA: induce osteoclast apoptosis
Oral Testosterone Toxicity
Methyltesosterone and Fluoxymesterone oral preparations are associated with
Testosterone can also cause
- make sure to monitor hematocrit and platelets.
Medication used for migraines
Side effects of Hydrochlorothiazide
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkylosis
Monitoring only required for
and those with
Note: unfractioned heparin must be monitored.
Most common association with Erythema Multiforme
Herpes Simplex Virus
should be considered in patients with recurrent herpes-associated erythema multiforme.
Note: Mycoplasma also associate
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
Characterized by mental status changes, renal impairment, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia.
Best treated with
plasmapheresis and fresh frozen plasma
Normal Ejection Fraction
Greater than > 50%
55 to 75%
in a healthy individual
Most frequent cause of Seizures in the elderly
Used to detect cancer
Utilizes radioactive tracer tagged to an analogue of
First imaging study to be ordered when investigating liver disease is
The higher the glycemic index of food
The more rapidly the carbohydrates are released into the bloodstream as glucose.
Higher glycemic indexes will result in a faster insulin response (may cause hypoglycemia or a metabolic syndrome)
Most common type of Thyroid Cancer
Papillary Cancer (90%) - excellent prognosis
Tx 1st line: surgical resection
Kidney, Ureter, Bladder Xray
Homocysteine and Methylmalonic Acid levels increase with...
Vitamin B12 deficiency
B12 is needed as a cofactor for reactions, therefore these products buildup and cannot be converted.
Elevated levels of
are associated with
A type of infectious diarrhea with high affinity for
Look for patient with
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome
Genotypically male that is resistant to androgens
Phenotypically female but no uterus present
Puberty: breasts develop, nothing else
Note: both W + M ducts are absent
Clinical entity with
elevated TSH but normal T3/T4 values
Normally asymptomatic but will progress to hypothyroid
Does not require treatment unless presence of anti-TPO antibodies
Clinical symptoms of
- Menstrual dysfunction
- caused by ingestion of HCl, Lye or the most common antibiotic
Results in esophageal perforation, esophageal stricture formation. Often seen in suicide attempts or in the pediatric population.
- Commonly seen in AIDS patients and the Immunocompromised
(punched out lesions on EGD)
(large solitary ulcers or erosions on EGD)
(white mucosal plaque-like lesions on EGD)
Odynophagia is main symptom (painful swallowing)
Osteomyelitis Imaging of Choice
MRI most accurate
Red Yeast Rice
Dietary supplement for cholesterol management and hyperlipidemia
Has some HMG coA reductase inhibitor activity like statins.
Patients must be monitored for potential
Side Effect of Propylthiouracil (PTU)
Used to treat hyperthyroidism
- blocks hormone production by reducing conversion of T4 to T3
- Risk of
Thus, Methimazole is preferred over PTU
A mechanical obstruction of the bowel by a large gallstone
caused by cholecystenteric fistula which connects the gallbladder with the duodenum or the hepatic flexure
most common site is ileocecal valve.
- small bowel obstruction (dilated loops of bowel)
- free air in the gallbladder (pneumobilia)
Rebound nasal congestion. Occurs with prolonged use (>5-7 d) of vasoconstrictive intranasal medications. Patient may become dependent, requiring more frequent dosing to achieve the same decongestant effect
Ex. Otrivin and pseudophedrine
Caloric Expenditure Components
Basal Metabolic Rate - 60 to 70% of caloric expenditure
Physical Activity - 25 to 35% of caloric expenditure
Dietary Thermogenesis - 10 to 15% of caloric expenditure
Caused by excessive / chronic laxative use
Drug Induced Lupus
Hydralazine and Procainamide
Chronic pathological dryness of the skin
- Common in elderly due to decreased hydration of epidermis
-Worse in the winter because of lower humidity and colder temperatures
Diffuse small pulmonary nodules
Typically seen in
immunocompromised due to alcohol abuse
Presents with weight loss, fatigue, cough and hepatomegaly
Valproic Acid Side Effects
Nausea and Headache
Increased bleeding time, thrombocytopenia
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Distinctive Facial Features:
- Small Eyes
- Thin Upper Lip
- Short upturned nose
- Smooth skin surface between nose and upper lip
Biochemical Marker used to determine people at risk for
Matrix protein that helps attach the amniotic membranes to the uterine lining
Sarcoma Botryoides (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma)
(< 4 years)
Can prolapse out of vagina
spindle-shaped tumor cells
stain positive for desmin
Abdominal pain remains unchanged or increased when abdominal muscles are tensed (POSITIVE TEST). Tells us pain is originating within abdominal wall.
Tenderness within abdominal cavity would normally decrease with this test.
Endometriosis outside of Pelvis
Most common is Liver (QBANK)
Toronto Notes says Lungs.....
Breast Cancer Primary risk factor:
Age #2 (but #1 in women)
Breast Mastitis most common bacteria
Number one cause of Jaundice in Pregnancy (mother)
Viral Hepatitis (50%)
Vitamin D Deficiency screening
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level
ain lost on Opposite side
elow lesion =
pper MN lesion
*L*evel of lesion =
evel of lesion = *L*ower MN lesion
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Inject sperm into middle of egg
Useful for men with low sperm motility, concentration
Couples with low fertility rates
Accutane aka Isotretinoin
Teratogenic: Microcephaly (face, eyes, ears, skull, CNS, CVS, thyroid, parathyroid)
Can occur from people on prolonged IV infusions of
to allow for excretion
Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)
Used to relieve premenstrual and menopausal symptoms.
Most common cause of Infertility
#1 - Ovulatory Disorders
#2 - Endometriosis
Used to calculate the chance of
successful vaginal delivery
aka cervix evaluation.
Look for a score of 8+
Postpartum Menstruation Return
Breast feeding: After 3 months
Non Breast feeding: within 6 weeks
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Testing
Nucleic Acid Amplification testing
Nitrofurantoin Mechanism of Action
Inactivates and alters bacterial ribosomal proteins leading to inhibition of vital biochemical processes (
Flattened Inspiratory Loop
Extra thoracic respiratory obstruction
Vocal cord dysfunction
Osteoporosis T Scores
-2.5 or less = osteoporosis
-2.5 to -1 = osteopenia
-1 or higher = normal
Can also be defined as low-impact fractures
Most common cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised
ex. AIDS with less than 100 CD4 cells
stain to detect
Amiodarone Side Effects
Corneal Deposits on slit-lamp examination
, hepatotoxicity and
hyper / hypothyroidism
→ 40% iodine by weight ∴ has thyroid effects
Important to check TSH levels
The use of the hospital environment itself as a therapeutic intervention for inpatient psychiatric treatment. It includes techniques such as behavioural reinforcement, peer support, structured schedule and daily activities.
Based on the belief that persons with mental illness tend to drift into a lower socioeconomic class because their illness interferes with skills needed to maintain a higher socioeconomic status.
Delusion that nothing exists, or that a significant aspect of the self (such as one's brain or the outside world) does not exist. These delusions focus on the nonexistence of self or parts of self, others or the world. A person with this type of delusion may have the false belief that the world is ending.
Specific delusion that is seen mostly in schizophrenic patients. The patient believes that a person has been replaced with an exact double that can act in every way like the original.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory assesses a wide range of
and also rates responses on a "lie scale", an "infrequency" scale and "suppressor scale"
Provides a level of
but would not provide supporting evidence.
A type of delusional disorder: the belief that another person is in love with you
More common in females
May escalate to violence when there is perceived rejection
Monozygotic Twins in Schizophrenia
Objective IQ test for Adults
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Objective IQ test for Children (4 to 17 yo)
Subjective test where patients describe what they see in an
Thematic Apprehension Test
Subjective test in which the patient describes what is going on in a
cartoon drawing of people
Beck Depression Inventory
Objective test to look for
Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery
Objective test that assesses many cognitive functions as well as cerebral dominance (
Left vs. Right sided
Halstead-Reitan Battery Test
Objective test used to determine the location and effects of specific
Epidemiological Triad of Disease
Hospice care is a type of care and philosophy of care that focuses on the
palliation of a chronically ill, terminally ill or seriously ill
patient's pain and symptoms, and attending to their emotional and spiritual needs.
Good Samaritan Statute
Laws that apply to situations in which the physician does not have preexisting duty to provide care to the patient. Will protect physicians from liability (in the absence of gross negligence).
Causes of Secondary Hypertension
West Nile Virus
Transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes infected after biting carrying birds.
Most severe effects include:
with encephalitis, meningitis, flaccid paralysis or coma.
The elderly are the greatest risk to infection.
0 - no contraction
1 - contraction but no movement
2 - movement with gravity neutralized
3 - movement against gravity
4- movement with some resistance
5 - movement with substantial resistance
Most common illness related to occupational exposure
AG (mean plasma glucose level) = 1.59 x A1C - 2.59
Associated with a greater risk of
Leading Cause of new Hepatitis C cases
IV drug use (60%)
Note: IGNORE USA NOTES
Leading cause of death in Canada
#3 Stroke (cerebrovascular)
Colonic Polyps Prevalence
30% at 50
40% at 60
50% at 70
"30 40 50 at 50 60 70"
Note: 1/3 of population have polyps at age 50
are the most potential for malignancy
Oral Contraceptive Pill Effects
Decreased risk of:
- Ovarian Cancer
- Endometrial Cancer
Increased risk of:
- Thromboembolic disease
Principle of Double Effect (PDE)
Explains the permissibility of an action that causes a serious harm, such as the death of a human being, as a side effect of promoting some good end.
Ex. Removing a diseases uterus with a fetus to save the mother's life even if the doctor is anti-abortion.
Most commonly Kiwis, Bananas, Avocados
The majority of people with latex-allergy are believed to develop IgE antibodies that cross-react with some proteins in plant-derived food.
Vast majority of injured patients do not sue
Resolution to cases normally takes 5 years
OBGYN are the most frequently sued doctors
Malpractice claims usually involve severe injury or death
Plaintiffs win only 1/5 of cases brought to court
Public Policy (3 components)
Fiscal: policy can be adopted to impose additional costs for undertaking unhealthy behaviours in hopes of creating an economic deterrent (ex. high tax on cigarettes)
Legislative: legal deterrents are put in place to reduce certain risky behaviours (ex. mandatory bike helmets)
Social: system put in place to create an environment of reasonable and equitable opportunity in hopes of supporting individuals across all socioeconomic statues (ex. affordable housing).
Note: Phase 2 has the highest rate of failure.
Lesions in Dorsal Column Tracts
Ataxia associated with loss of vibration and position sense (proprioception) with no other sensory difficulties.
+ Rombergs test
FABER or Patrick's Test
Flexion Abduction External Rotation (FABER)
Posterior pain = Sacroiliac
Anterior pain = hip joint
Do not give ______ with Cocaine overdose!!
Beta blockers - will cause an overwhelming amount of alpha activation leading to worsening of myocardial ischemia.
Congestive Heart Failure: 1
Age > 75: 1
Stroke/TIA (prior): 2
Scores of 0 or 1, use aspirin
2 or more
High Dose steroids can cause....
Cushings effects (BIG BIF) and..
Psychiatric Effects such as
Asplenic Patient is susceptible to ________ bacteria
S. pneumonia >> Haemophilus >> Neisseria
Number one cause of small bowel obstruction
usually developed from prior surgeries.
Most common types of stress fractures
Referred pain to right shoulder and back with
Most common types of abdominal pain in children
Gastroenteritis = medical condition
Appendicitis = surgical condition
Fever / Chills
(infection of bile duct)
Arrest of inspiration during palpation under rib cage on the right
(inflammation of gallbladder)
Side effects of Nasogastric Tube Feeding
Others: aspiration, ulceration of nasal / esophageal tissues leading to stricture
Palmar branch of the median nerve
Unlike most of the median nerve innervation of the hand, the palmar branch travels superficial to the Flexor retinaculum of the hand. Therefore, this portion of the median nerve usually remains functioning during carpal tunnel syndrome.
Types of Wound Closure
Ottawa Ankle Rules: FOOT vs. ANKLE xray
BMI 35+ with risk factors
BMI 40+ without risk factors
#1 cause of death after Bariatric Sx:
Most will have
resolution of their diabetes
Mortality rates are 3/4 times higher in those treated with hypoglycemia agents. Hyperlipidemia will also resolve.
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hook of Hamate Fracture
Seen in golf, tennis, baseball
When you ground a club, check swing in baseball for example. Force enters the palm and puts pressure directly on hypothenar eminence
Flexion Adduction Internal Rotation
for Femoracetabular Impingement
Results from avulsion of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) of the thumb.
Can be associated with a bony avulsion fracture.
Also called "Skier's thumb" for acute setting.
Post Operative Fever casues
"Wind, Water, Wound, Walk"
Wind - pneumonia / aspiration - 1 day
Water - UTI - 3 days
Wound - Infection - 5 days
Walk - DVT - 7 days
Used to determine the prognosis / aggressiveness or malignant potential of
Fat Pad Sign
Enlarged anterior fat pad ("sail sign") or the presence of a posterior fat pad indicates effusion which could occur with occult (hidden)
radial head fractures
Caused by FOOSH with elbow extended and forearm pronated
A varicocele on the
or if a varicocele occurs in someone less than 10 years old. It could indicate an abdominal or retroperitoneal mass.
Caused by 3 broken ribs or more.
Results in an underlying lung contusion
- Chest wall moves inwards breathing in and outwards breathing out. Opposite of normal.
Carpal Tunnel Contents
TOP - Flexor Retinaculum
Flexor Pollicus Longus
4 Flexor Digitorium Superficialis
4 Flexor Digitorium Profundas
BOTTOM - CARPAL BONES
Note: Flexor Carpi Radialis is
Breast Cancer in Women Stats
1 in 8
will be diagnosed in their lifetime
Chances of dying from Breast Cancer
1 in 30
Noncancerous Liver Tumour
use in women
RUQ pain sometimes. Seen with ultrasound / CT
Head CT Indications
Contrast: tumour or intracranial mass
- Presents with headache, vomiting, papilledema
No Contrast: suspected intracranial bleed or hemorrhage
Female Athlete Triad
But this has now expanded: eating has been replaced by
Normal Baby Weight Gain
Average weight at birth is 3.3 kg
Drops 10% on the 1st day of life
Regained within 7 to 14 days
Normal weight gain is
- 20 to 30 grams per day OR
- 150 to 200 grams per week
Hypertension in Children
Most common cause of HTN in children under 10 is
renal parenchymal disease
Essential HTN afterwards
Quinsy Triad (Peritonsillar Abscess)
1) Trismus (unable to open jaw due to reflex spasm of medial pterygoid)
2) Uvular deviation
3) Dysphonia (hot potato voice)
- most common renal primary tumour in kids (occurs at ~
3 years old
- Wilm's Tumour
- Genital anomalies (ex. Hypospadias)
- mental Retardation
Normal Neonatal Growth Per week
Normal growth for a neonate is
150 to 200 grams per week
Red Cell Casts (RBC Casts)
White Cell Casts
Pyelonephritis (bacterial infection of kidney)
) Interstitial Nephritis
that concentrates the urine and the normal Tamm-Horsfall protein precipitates or concentrates into a cast.
Broad, Waxy Casts
Granular "Muddy Brown Casts"
acute tubular necrosis
These are collections of dead tubular cells.
Sulfonamide antibiotics (TMP-SMX)
Sulfasalazine (Crohn's / UC)
Sulfonyureas (DM 2 drugs)
Baseline Plasma Anion Gap Formula
(44 - Albumin) / 4
Painless, palpable gallbladder plus jaundice (pancreatic cancer)
An acquired blood clotting disorder that results in migratory thrombophlebitis (inflammation of a vein due to a blood clot). Although not always associated with an internal malignancy, many cases do show an underlying cancer (ex.
Pumping up a blood pressure cuff causes carpopedal spasm (tetany from hypocalcemia)
TCAs have __________ side effects
Dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation,
The probability of pregnancy is highest when?
#1 cause of Neonatal Mortality in
Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Hearing Range (Hz)
The best range for hearing is from
400 to 5000 Hz
Lower and Higher frequencies than this range require louder sounds for us to hear.
Note: the frequency range for audible sounds is between 20-20,000 Hz
If your child has a cleft lip - the chance of their sibling having one is higher for a
Most commonly comes from initial
Gynecomastia Causing Drugs
Some Drugs Cause Awesome Knockers
Short Acting Benzodiazepines
Alprazolam, Triazolam, Oxazepam, and Midazolam are short acting
higher addictive potential
Extensor Tendon Deformities
Mallet Finger: DIP flexed with loss of active extension
Boutonniere: PIP flexed, DIP hyperextended
Swan Neck: PIP hyperextended, DIP flexed
Most commonly fracture
bone in the hand
Distal Phalanx Fractures
Diseases with IVIG Treatment
Myasthenia Gravis (crisis)
Steven Johnson Syndrome
Aspirin should be stopped ____ days before Surgery
Mental Retardation causes
- #1 preventable cause
- #1 overall cause
Nigrostriatal (Extrapyramidal motor)
Mesolimbic (Mood + Reward)
Determination of Alcohol Dependence
C - Do they feel the need to
A - Do they get
when asked about drinking?
G - Do they feel
E - Do they feel the need for a morning
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MCCEE Q bank
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