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World Religions, Founding of Islam, and Early Middle Ages


Judaism's most sacred text; includes many laws and established moral principals


considered the father of the Israelite people; made covenant with God


renewed God's covenant with the Israelites; led Israelites out of Egypt to Canaan


second king of Israel; united 12 tribes that had been feuding


founded by Siddhartha Gautama in foothills of Himalayas; final goal is nirvana

4 Noble Truths

1) All life is full of pain, suffering, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire. 3) The only cure to suffering is to overcome nonvirtue. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path ------ All of these lie at the heart of Buddhism; apart of his first sermon


no single founder and no single sacred text; overlapping beliefs of groups who settled in India

Basic beliefs

(Hinduism) worship a variety of gods who give concrete form to brahman; Brahma: the creator, Vishnu: the preserver, Shiva: the destroyer; sacred text is Vedas; essential self is atman; believe in reincarnation which is rebirth of soul in another bodily form; dharma is the religious and moral duties of an individual; a key principle is ahimsa, or nonviolence


union with brahman and ultimate goal of existence for Hindus


started the process of the formation of Hinduism when they added the gods of the Indus civilization to their own

Caste System

ensured stable social order; people are born into a social group and can rarely be changed; one cannot marry outside of their group and people from different groups rarely talk to each other


final goal for buddhists; union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth


rebirth of the soul in another bodily form; allows people to continue working towards moksha


a bustling market town at the crossroads of several caravan towns; where Muhammad was born; also thriving pilgrimage center


founder of the religion of Islam; he heard the voice of the angel gabriel and he said that he would be the messenger of God; went on a hijra from Mecca to Medina or "city of the prophet"


sacred text of Islam; teaches that God is all powerful and compassionate; its ethical standards emphasize honesty, generosity, and social justice


Islam means "to submit to god"; all follow 5 pillars of islam which are Declaration of Faith, Daily Prayer, Alms for the Poor, Fast during Ramadan, and the hajj; sharia is the Islamic System of Law (no real definition for Muslim so...)

Angel Gabriel

appeared to Muhammad and told him to be the messenger of god

Shiite Muslims

one of the major sects of Islam; believe that the true successors to Muhammad are the descendants of Ali and Muhammad's daughter, Fatima

Sunni Muslims

one of the major sects of Islam; believe the successor to Muhammad should be a pious male Muslim from Muhammad's tribe; successor is called a caliph

Umayyad Caliphs

dynasty of Sunni caliphs that ruled the Muslim empire until 750; capital was in Damascus; extended Arab rule from Spain and Morocco in the west to the Indus River Valley; built Muslim empire; followed by the Abbasid Empire

Muslim Art

Muslims leaders forbade artists to portray God or human figures in religious art, giving Islamic art a distinctive style; some Muslim artists painted human and animal figures in nonreligious art; Muslim artists perfected calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting***

Pope Leo III

crowned Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans after he helped him against rebellious nobles in Rome


grandson of Charles Martel; had empire that included France, Germany, and Italy; worked closely with the Church to spread Christianity to the peoples he conquered


Charlemagne's heirs faced invasions from them; nomadic people that settled in present day Hungary and overran eastern Europe and plundered Germany, parts of France, and Italy


broke last threads of unity in Charlemagne's empire; destructive raiders who were also traders and explorers who sailed around the Mediterranean and across the Atlantic Ocean

Collapse of the Carolingian Dynasty

foreign invasion from the vikings caused this


this was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lessor lords


code of conduct for knights; it required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word

Papal Supremacy

when the pope claimed supremacy over all rulers for example Pope Innocent III


monks who did not live in isolated monasteries; went around Europe's growing towns and preached to the poor; first order of friars was founded by St. Francis of Assisi


religious people who lived in monasteries and convents and devoted their entire lives to spiritual goals

Vassal (Obligations)

lesser lords who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord; exchange of land for loyalty and military service; lord promised to protect vassal


the lord's estate; the heart of the feudalism economy

Manor System

most manors included one or more villages and the surrounding lands; peasants who made up the majority of the population in medieval society lived and worked on the manor

Benedictine Rule

this was used by monasteries and convents across Europe; monks and nuns took three vows: obedience, poverty, chastity

Church Reforms of Pope Gregory VII in 1073

banned the practice of lay investiture;

Truce of God

no fighting between Friday and Sunday each week and on religious holidays

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