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History Exam 69

World Religions, Founding of Islam, and Early Middle Ages
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Torah
Judaism's most sacred text; includes many laws and established moral principals
Abraham
considered the father of the Israelite people; made covenant with God
Moses
renewed God's covenant with the Israelites; led Israelites out of Egypt to Canaan
David
second king of Israel; united 12 tribes that had been feuding
Buddhism
founded by Siddhartha Gautama in foothills of Himalayas; final goal is nirvana
4 Noble Truths
1) All life is full of pain, suffering, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire. 3) The only cure to suffering is to overcome nonvirtue. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path ------ All of these lie at the heart of Buddhism; apart of his first sermon
Hinduism
no single founder and no single sacred text; overlapping beliefs of groups who settled in India
Basic beliefs
(Hinduism) worship a variety of gods who give concrete form to brahman; Brahma: the creator, Vishnu: the preserver, Shiva: the destroyer; sacred text is Vedas; essential self is atman; believe in reincarnation which is rebirth of soul in another bodily form; dharma is the religious and moral duties of an individual; a key principle is ahimsa, or nonviolence
Moksha
union with brahman and ultimate goal of existence for Hindus
Aryans
started the process of the formation of Hinduism when they added the gods of the Indus civilization to their own
Caste System
ensured stable social order; people are born into a social group and can rarely be changed; one cannot marry outside of their group and people from different groups rarely talk to each other
Nirvana
final goal for buddhists; union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in another bodily form; allows people to continue working towards moksha
Mecca
a bustling market town at the crossroads of several caravan towns; where Muhammad was born; also thriving pilgrimage center
Muhammad
founder of the religion of Islam; he heard the voice of the angel gabriel and he said that he would be the messenger of God; went on a hijra from Mecca to Medina or "city of the prophet"
Quran
sacred text of Islam; teaches that God is all powerful and compassionate; its ethical standards emphasize honesty, generosity, and social justice
Muslim
Islam means "to submit to god"; all follow 5 pillars of islam which are Declaration of Faith, Daily Prayer, Alms for the Poor, Fast during Ramadan, and the hajj; sharia is the Islamic System of Law (no real definition for Muslim so...)
Angel Gabriel
appeared to Muhammad and told him to be the messenger of god
Shiite Muslims
one of the major sects of Islam; believe that the true successors to Muhammad are the descendants of Ali and Muhammad's daughter, Fatima
Sunni Muslims
one of the major sects of Islam; believe the successor to Muhammad should be a pious male Muslim from Muhammad's tribe; successor is called a caliph
Umayyad Caliphs
dynasty of Sunni caliphs that ruled the Muslim empire until 750; capital was in Damascus; extended Arab rule from Spain and Morocco in the west to the Indus River Valley; built Muslim empire; followed by the Abbasid Empire
Muslim Art
Muslims leaders forbade artists to portray God or human figures in religious art, giving Islamic art a distinctive style; some Muslim artists painted human and animal figures in nonreligious art; Muslim artists perfected calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting***
Pope Leo III
crowned Charlemagne the Emperor of the Romans after he helped him against rebellious nobles in Rome
Charlemagne
grandson of Charles Martel; had empire that included France, Germany, and Italy; worked closely with the Church to spread Christianity to the peoples he conquered
Magyars
Charlemagne's heirs faced invasions from them; nomadic people that settled in present day Hungary and overran eastern Europe and plundered Germany, parts of France, and Italy
Vikings
broke last threads of unity in Charlemagne's empire; destructive raiders who were also traders and explorers who sailed around the Mediterranean and across the Atlantic Ocean
Collapse of the Carolingian Dynasty
foreign invasion from the vikings caused this
Feudalism
this was a loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their landholdings among lessor lords
Chivalry
code of conduct for knights; it required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word
Papal Supremacy
when the pope claimed supremacy over all rulers for example Pope Innocent III
Friars
monks who did not live in isolated monasteries; went around Europe's growing towns and preached to the poor; first order of friars was founded by St. Francis of Assisi
Monks
religious people who lived in monasteries and convents and devoted their entire lives to spiritual goals
Vassal (Obligations)
lesser lords who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord; exchange of land for loyalty and military service; lord promised to protect vassal
Manor
the lord's estate; the heart of the feudalism economy
Manor System
most manors included one or more villages and the surrounding lands; peasants who made up the majority of the population in medieval society lived and worked on the manor
Benedictine Rule
this was used by monasteries and convents across Europe; monks and nuns took three vows: obedience, poverty, chastity
Church Reforms of Pope Gregory VII in 1073
banned the practice of lay investiture;
Truce of God
no fighting between Friday and Sunday each week and on religious holidays