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APUSH Chapter 16, 17, 18, 19: Key Terms
Terms in this set (44)
Chinese Immigration Act of 1882 (Exclusion Act)
It was one of the most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers
The Comstock Lode was the first major U.S. discovery of silver ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada, on the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range. After the discovery was made public in 1859, prospectors rushed to the area and scrambled to stake their claims. Mining camps soon thrived in the vicinity, which became bustling centers of fabulous wealth.
The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the post-Civil War era to drive cattle overland, from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads
Rocky Mountain School
The Rocky Mountain School was more a school of thought than an actual institution. Its members were influenced by the beauty of the Rocky Mountains and the surrounding landscape. The most famous members were Albert Bierstacht and Thomas Moran. Their works romanticized the West.
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis
The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American frontier. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it had on pioneers going through the process.
Sand Creek Massacre
An attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Battle of Little Bighorn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse...last victory of the native americans
The Ghost Dance (Caddo: Nanissáanah, also called the Ghost Dance of 1890) was a new religious movement incorporated into numerous American Indian belief systems.
Battle of Wounded Knee
Last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs and they would become an american citizen
Indian policy adopted by fed. govt. in 1871: ended treaty making with tribes, established Court of Indian Offenses and Native American schools, passed Dawes Act
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials to the manufacture and sale of the finished product.
John D. Rockefeller
Founder of the Standard Oil Company, became one of the world's wealthiest men and a major philanthropist. Born into modest circumstances in upstate New York, he entered the then-fledgling oil business in 1863 by investing in a Cleveland, Ohio, refinery.
The railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical. This man was one of the few railroad owners to be just and not considered a "Robber Barron"
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competition and opposed intervention in the natural human order.
The Gospel of Wealth
Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.
-Promoted Social Darwinism
-Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism
-Great wealth brought responsibility
Railroad Strike of 1877
A group of railroad workers on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad rose up and began to strike due to wage cuts. This spread up and down the railroad line across the nation. Railroad roadhouse were torched. President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to stop the strike. 100 people died in the strike
Knights of Labor
This group, which peaked membership in 1886, grew rapidly because of a combination of their open-membership policy, the continuing industrialization of the American economy, and the growth of urban population;
welcomed unskilled and semiskilled workers, including women, immigrants, and African Americans;
were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and managements. Their goal was to create a cooperative society in which laborers owned the industries in which they worked.
American Federation of Labor
A union of skilled laborers formed by Samuel Gompers in 1866. The AFL quickly became one of the most powerful unions in the United States.
Responsible for the formation of one of the first labor unions. The American Federation of Labor worked on getting people better hours and better wages. The formation of this triggered the formation of various others that would come later.
In 1866, police in Chicago tried to stop farm machine workers from meeting. A bomb exploded, wounding and killing many. Eight people were tried and convicted. Four were executed. organized by the Knights of Labor - this killed them.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Germans and Scandinavians from Western Europe who came before the 1880's. They discriminated against the "new immigration" and considered themselves "natives." The mixing of the other Europeans would tarnish their true Anglo-Saxon heritage
The Baltic and Slavic people of southeastern Europe. They came in the 1880's and 90's. from 1880 to 1900, the southeastern immigration went from 19% of immigrants to over 60%
Main immigration processing station on the east coast and located in the NY harbor
Poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived.
Frederick Law Olmsted
United States landscape architect primarily responsible for the design of Central Park in New York City.
Political entities controlled by a boss that wielded enormous influence over the government of urban cities.
- Very corrupt, controlled tax rates, gave tax breaks to their allies and controlled prices and business, etc.
- Stole millions from taxpayers using fraud and over-inflation
- Did minor philanthropy to boost their public image
- Gave money to support businesses, immigrants, and the poor in return for their votes.
Political machine of NYC
Starting in England, they were houses which connected the students of universities with their neighbors in slum cities. These houses helped education, savings, sports, and arts for people.
A middle-class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; college educated (one of first generation); established the Hull House in Chicago in 1889 (most prominent American settlement house, mostly for immigrants); condemned war and poverty; won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931
Social Gospel movement
The Social Gospel Movement was a religious movement that arose during the second half of the nineteenth century. Ministers, especially ones belonging to the Protestant branch of Christianity, began to tie salvation and good works together. They argued that people must emulate the life of Jesus Christ.
A realist artistic movement that came into prominence in the United States during the early twentieth century, best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York's poorer neighborhoods.
An opinionated Chicago architect, contributed formidably to the further development of the skyscraper with his famous principle that "form follows function"
A style of architecture led by Louis Sullivan (not an actual school). It used cheap steel, reinforced concrete, and electric elevators to build skyscrapers and office buildings lacking of any exterior ornamentation
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
A system in which benefits, including jobs, money, or protection are granted in exchange for political support. ( not a good system of government- this was something that was fought by the English Whigs)
Pendleton Act of 1883
The Pendleton Act of 1883 was the federal legislation that created a system in which federal employees were chosen based upon competitive exams. This made job positions based on merit or ability and not inheritance or class. It also created the Civil Service Commission.
American agrarian movement taking its name from the National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry, an organization founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley and six associates. Its local units were called granges and its members Grangers.
This was an organized economic movement within farmers that worked during the 1880s. One of the goals was to adverse the effects of crop-lien system.
Founded in 1892, advocated variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, direct election of U.S. senators, referendums, initiatives, loans and warehouses for farmers and an 8 hr workday for workers
1893 - Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief (500 mil to create jobs). Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.
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