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blameworthiness based on mens rea; deserving of punishment because of individual responsibility for actions
the idea that we can only punish people that we can blame, and we can only blame people that are responsible for what they do.
requires no purposeful or conscious bad mind in the actor; it sets a standard of what the "average person should have known"
the attitude represented by subjective fault, where there's a "bad" mind or will that triggers the act; the intent to do something beyond the actus reus
general intent "plus"
"general intent" refers to the intent to commit the actus reus of the crime and "plus" refers to some "special mental element" in addition to the intent to commit the criminal act
liability without fault, or in the absence of mens rea; it's based on voluntary action alone.
principle of concurrence
some mental fault has to trigger the actus reus in criminal conduct crimes and the cause in bad-result crimes
"but for" cause
cause in fact; the actor's conduct sets in motion a chain of events that, sooner or later, leads to a result
the cause that either interrupts a chain of events or substantially contributes to a result
ignorance of the law
a defense that the defendant didn't know the rules, so he couldn't know he was breaking the law.
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