Terms in this set (105)
_________ waves travel only through solids; on reaching liquid or gas, the _______ wave energy is reflected back into rock or is converted to another form.
Geologists have shown that the east coast of the United States faces a serious tsunami threat from ________.
volcanic flank collapse in the Canary Islands
The captain of a ship tells you that he once experienced a huge tsunami while sailing in the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles from any landmass. You decide that this sounds a little farfetched because __________________.
tsunami are rarely felt in deep water because they have long wavelengths and low heights
Velocities for _________ waves in granite are about 5.5 to 6 km/sec, but in water they slow to 1.5 km/sec.
The __________ is measured in cross-sectional view as the angle of inclination from horizontal of a tilted rock layer, and _______ is viewed in map view as the compass bearing of the rock layer where it intersects a horizontal plane.
The great 1960 Chile earthquake (M 9.5) unleashed a tsunami that killed over 1,000 Chileans. These waves also killed 61 people in Hilo, Hawaii, 14 hours after the earthquake, and another 185 people in ________, 22.5 hours after the earthquake.
The largest historic tsunami wave run-up ever recorded was caused by a massive rockfall into the water at ________________.
Lituya Bay, Alaska
Usually, the biggest concern in designing buildings to withstand large earthquakes is the ____________ components of movement.
sideways push from the horizontal
Most of the 245,000 deaths from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami occurred in _______.
A normal fault occurs when the hanging wall moves ________ relative to the footwall.
Modern tsunami warning systems make use of _________________.
sea surface buoys and ocean bottom pressure sensors only
The _________ waves' motion is similar to S waves, except it is from side-to-side in a horizontal plane roughly parallel to the Earth's surface.
Tsunami is a Japanese word that means __________________.
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was generated by a magnitude 9.2 earthquake along __________ off the shore of Sumatra.
a subduction zone
The disappearance of ______ waves at the core-mantle boundary indicates that the outer core is mostly liquid.
Moving progressively away from the ridges, the ocean water depths increase systematically with seafloor age due to all but which of the following?
erosion of the older ocean floor by deep ocean currents
Based on insurance industry records of economic loss from natural disasters, 32 of the 40 most expensive disasters between 1970 and 2012 were __________________ and floods.
During the last half of the 20th century, earthquakes, tsunami, and ______________ account for the majority of deaths from natural disasters.
The population of Easter Island was limited by all but which of the following?
the Ebola virus
About 1550 C.E., the human population of Easter Island was about 7,000; when the first European contact came from the crew of a Dutch ship on Easter Sunday, 5 April 1722, the population of Easter Island __________________.
had dropped to about 2000
The slide-past motions of long transform faults occur in all but which of the following?
Where the Indian subcontinent touches Asia.
Most of the 40 deadliest disasters between 1970 and 2012 occurred in a belt running from China and Bangladesh through India and Iran to Turkey. This area was particularly vulnerable because __________________.
it has a high population density
In the last 50 years of the 20th century, world population grew from ______ billion to over 6 billion.
During prosperous times, the Easter Islanders' diet was based on _______________.
chickens and yams
Most of the more-developed countries have _________________.
low death rates and low birth rates
Easter Island is _________________.
an isolated volcanic island located in the Pacific Ocean
When oceanic lithosphere collides with another plate, the ________ in the process of subduction.
older, colder plate goes beneath the younger, warmer plate
The oldest rocks on the ocean floors are about ________ years in age.
The rapid increase in human population during the past several centuries is an example of ________________ growth.
The Pacific plate subducts along _________ edges and creates enormous earthquakes, such as the 1923 Tokyo seism.
its northern and western
In 1985 in Mexico City, building damages were the greatest and the number of deaths the highest where all but which one of these factors combined and created resonance:
Single-story buildings with a 1-second resonant period vibrated themselves to pieces.
The Great Basin region between the eastern Sierra Nevada in California and the Wasatch Mountains in Utah ______________________ in response to plate tectonic forces.
has expanded in an east-west direction
Which state accounts for the greatest percentage of all U.S. earthquakes of magnitude 3.5 and above?
Constraining bends in large strike-slip faults commonly "lock up"; thus, movements there tend to be _________________.
infrequent and large
The San Andreas fault's earthquakes in historic time include which of the following?
All of these are correct:
a magnitude 7.1 unleashed by a 25-mi-long rupture near Santa Cruz in 1989
a magnitude 8+ due to a 265-mi-long rupture passing through the San Francisco Bay region in 1906
a magnitude 8+ caused by a 225-mi-long rupture in central California in 1857
In San Francisco's Marina district in 1989, some fill underwent permanent deformation and settling, and some formed slurries as underground water and loose sediment flowed like a fluid in a process known as ______________.
The dominant type of faulting in the Great Basin region is ______________.
The largest earthquakes along western North America are due to subduction beneath the continent. They include ________________.
All of these are correct:
the plates subducting beneath Oregon and Washington which generated a magnitude 9 earthquake on 26 January 1700
the magnitude 8.1 Mexico City event in 1985 which was caused by subduction of the Cocos plate
the magnitude 9.2 Alaska earthquake in 1964 which was due to subduction of the Pacific plate
Three basic classes of collisions include all but which of the following?
mantle plate versus lithospheric plate
Which of the following represents evidence for major fault movement on the Seattle fault zone about 1100 years ago?
All of these are correct:
The former shoreline at Restoration Point was uplifted 23 feet above the high-tide line in a single event.
Numerous large landslides occurred at this time, including some that carried trees in growth position to the bottom of Lake Washington.
Several tsunami deposits have been recognized in the sediment layers of the area.
The same date appears in the ages of six major rock avalanches in the Olympic Mountains.
Which of the following does NOT have a significant convergent margin?
NOT: South American Andes
Much of the San Francisco Marina District is built on artificial fill debris from the buildings ruined by the 1906 earthquake. Seismic waves in 1989 were ____________ in this artificial fill.
Which four states account for 91% of all U.S. earthquakes of magnitude 3.5 and above?
California, Alaska, Hawaii, Nevada
The New Madrid earthquakes are apparently related to ______________.
an old buried rift zone
Earthquakes in Hawaii are mostly related to ________________.
movement of volcanic magma beneath the ground
A mantle hot spot has generated a long-lived plume beneath Yellowstone National Park, and the North American continent is drifting ___________ above it about 2 to 4 cm/yr.
Many hill-slope masses are weak due to preexisting geologic conditions such as _______________.
all are correct:
ancient slide surfaces
rock layering dipping less than topographic slopes
structures within the rocks, such as fractures, ancient faults, and thin clay seams
Violent causes of death from volcanic eruptions include _______________.
all are correct:
Rock may melt by _______________.
all are correct:
lowering the pressure on it
raising its temperature
increasing its water content
Many of the deaths at Mt. St. Helens on May 18, 1980 were related to ________________.
NOT: the earthquake that preceded the eruption
Spreading centers are an ideal location for volcanism because ______________.
All are correct:
the oceanic plates pull apart causing hot asthenosphere rock to rise and undergo decompression melting to form magma that continues to rise
the asthenosphere rock has low percentages of SiO2
they sit above the high-temperature asthenosphere
The Houston-Galveston, Texas, area has been sinking. This is related to the _______________.
withdrawal of groundwater by pumping
Mt. Rainier, Washington, is number one on the danger list of many volcanologists because of ____________.
all are correct:
its great height
its extensive glacial cap
its frequent earthquakes
its active hot-water spring systems, which have weakened the mountain internally
The formation of a giant continental caldera includes all but which of the following?
Basaltic eruptions begin from circular fractures surrounding the bulge.
Areas of geyser activity include _______.
all are correct:
Yellowstone Park in the United States
North Island of New Zealand
Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia
__________ are steep-sided, symmetrical volcanic peaks built of alternating layers of pyroclastic debris capped by high-viscosity andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows that solidify to form protective caps.
In August 1986, a gigantic volume of gas belched forth from Lake Nyos in Cameroon and swept down the adjacent valleys asphyxiating 1700 people. The gas was _____________.
Some of Earth's most beautiful mountains are ________, including Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Mt. Shasta in California, Mt. Rainier in Washington, and Mt. Fuji in Japan.
The volcanic explosivity index (VEI) measures size of volcanic eruptions on a scale of 0 to 8. Between 1500 and 1981, one VEI 7 eruption occurred. This was ______________.
Tambora, in 1815
The energy behind the 1902 pyroclastic flow that destroyed St. Pierre came from _________________.
all are correct:
the blast of the volcano
gas escaping from pieces of airborne pyroclastic material, creating a "popcorn" effect
Glass is opaque to _________ radiation.
The rapid rotation of the Earth results in all large moving air masses in the Northern Hemisphere sidling off toward their ______ -hand side, when viewed along the direction of movement, and all moving bodies of air in the Southern Hemisphere veering toward their ______.
NOT: left; right
The "White Hurricane" of 1993 was an immense winter cyclone that covered the eastern United States, causing $800 million in damage and 238 deaths. The hardest hit area was ______________.
Adiabatic cooling occurs when:
air mass rises and expands
The Earth is _________ during the Northern Hemisphere winter.
closest to the Sun
Which of the following greenhouse gases accounts for 60% of global warming?
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
The highest wind speeds of any weather phenomenon occur in ________________.
A strong El Ni-o is characterized by __________________.
all are correct:
the arrival of warm ocean water to Peru and Ecuador near Christmastime
high atmospheric pressure over the eastern Pacific Ocean resulting in trade winds that blow toward the equator from the north and south
a southern jet stream branch that flows eastward bringing higher rainfall to the southeastern United States and helping break apart Atlantic and Caribbean storms resulting in fewer hurricanes
heavy rainstorms in the western United States
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a sample of water is referred to as the ________________.
The Little Ice Age that affected Europe from about ___________ lowered average annual temperature by only about 1?C but was enough to reduce crop yields, cause mountain glaciers to advance, and produce winters much more severe than in the twentieth century.
1400 to 1900 C.E.
A polar jet is a belt of winds about 600 miles wide, flowing as fast as _________ in its central "core".
Observed effects of global warming in recent decades include all but which of the following?
descending tree-line in mountainous regions of Europe and New Zealand
Much of the midlatitude severe weather in the Northern Hemisphere occurs via cyclones: air masses rotating _________________________________.
counterclockwise about a low-pressure core
A sloping surface separating air masses that differ in temperature and moisture content is called __________________.
The major factors in glacial periods lasting tens of millions of years appear to be ____________________.
Both having one or more large continental masses near the poles and oceanic circulation that is more longitudinal (north-south) than latitudinal (east-west) are correct.
Hurricane Katrina (2005) ranks number ________ in a list of the 13 deadliest hurricanes in the United States since 1900.
The "channeled scablands" of the state of Washington were caused by _________________.
the failure of an ice dam during glacial melting
Which of the following is a rotating, low-pressure weather system with a warm core that generally forms over warm seawater between 5? and 20? latitude and then travels off to deliver its heat to higher latitudes?
southern hemisphere cyclones
The rate of global sea-level rise is currently averaging about ________ per century.
When ice dams in front of the largest glacial lakes failed, stupendous floods resulted whose passage is still recorded _________________.
In lake sediments
by countryside stripped of all soil and sediment cover
by abandoned waterfalls
by a system of braided channels, now left mostly dry
If a flood has a recurrence interval of ten years, it means ____________________.
that in any given year a similar flood has a 1/10 chance of occurring
The main influences on tropical cyclone paths include all but which of the following?
Hurricane paths vary depending on the size and position of the Bermuda Triangle.
A hurricane is defined as a large area of sustained winds greater than 74 miles per hour. This is the wind speed at which ______________________.
the center of the storm develops a calm area known as the eye
Which of the following conditions led to the 1993 flood in the midcontinental United States?
the jet stream locked in place over north-central plains for an unusually long time
Rank the following in order of increasing strength:
tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane
A braided stream has ____________.
too much sediment to carry
The Saffir-Simpson scale is used to measure the intensity of __________________.
The strongest winds in a hurricane are ____________________.
in the eye wall
The danger of (northern hemisphere) storm surge is most extreme _____________ of a hurricane, due to the forward motion of the storm motion and the direction of rotating winds.
on the front-right side
The Saffir-Simpson scale is numbered 1-5 with _______________________.
larger numbers indicating bigger hurricanes
Fire produces _______________.
carbon dioxide and water vapor
When waves hit headlands they
refract, focussing energy
Severe coastal erosion
is accelerated by sea wall construction
As a wave approaches man made obstructions along the coast at an angle:
NOT: Sand is deposited on the wake side and eroded on the near
Pyrolysis results in emanation of all but which of the following?
Which of these drives fires in Southern California?
Santa Ana winds
Sea breezes reach their maximum on-shore wind speeds __________________.
during the hottest part of the day
The term "ladder fuels" refers to ___________________.
vegetation of varying heights, which allow fire to quickly climb upward
The organic debris left on the ground after logging or windstorms is called _____________.
Newtons Law states that force is proportional to
Mass times acceleration
The most intense fires occur in ________________________.
shrubs containing high contents of natural oils
Transfer of heat occurs by all but which of the following?
On 12 September 1812, Napoleon and the French army reached the hills outside of _________ and found it to be largely deserted, with fires burning throughout; for six days, the fires raged until 90 percent of the city was incinerated.
The sun and the moon each exert a tidal force. These are highest:
NOT: at the winter apogee
The thermal degradation of wood involves the process of _______.