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Chapter 39 Female Pelvis
Terms in this set (91)
One of two muscles in the pelvic diaphragm; located on the posterior pelvic floor, where it supports the coccyx
Portion of the pelvis found above the brim; that portion of the abdominal cavity cradled by the iliac fossae
Paired triangular, flat muscles that cover the inner curved surface of the iliac fossae; arise from the iliac fossae, and join the psoas major muscles to form the lateral walls of the pelvis
a bony ridge on the inner surface of the ilium and pubic bones that divides the true and false pelvis
one of two muscles of the pelvic diaphragm that stretch across the floor of the pelvic cavity like a hammock, supporting the pelvic organs and surrounding the urethra, vagina, and rectum; a broad thin muscle that consists of the pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, and puborectalis
obturator internus muscle
a triangular sheet of muscle that arises from the anterolateral pelvic wall and surrounds the obturator foramen; passes through the lesser sciatic foramen and inserts into the medial aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur; serves to rotate and abduct the thigh
a flat, pyramidal muscle arising from the anterior sacrum, passing through the greater sciatic notch to insert into the superior aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur; serves to rotate and abduct the thigh
psoas major muscle
paired muscles that originate at the transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae and extend inferiorly through the false pelvis on the pelvic sidewall, where it unites with the iliacus muscle to form the ilioposoas muscle before inserting into the lesser trochanter of the femur; serves to flex the thigh towards the pelvis
parallel longitudinal lines commonly seen in muscle tissue when imaged sonographically; appear as hyperechoic parallel lines running in the long axis of the hypoechoic muscle tissue
pelvic cavity found inferior to the pelvic brim; protects the bladder and some reproductive organs
Position of the uterus when the uterus is tipped slightly forward so that the cervix forms a 90-degree angle or less with the vaginal canal; most common uterine position
refers to the position of the uterus when the uterine fundus bends forward toward the cervix
a broad fold of peritoneum draped over the fallopian tubes, uterus, and the ovaries; extends from the sides of the uterus to the sidewalls of the pelvis, dividing the pelvis from side to side and creating the vesicouterine pouch anterior to the uterus and the recto-uterine pouch posteriorly; it is divided into the mesometrium, mesosalpinx, and mesovarium
wide band of fibromuscular tissue arising from the lateral aspects of the cervix and inserting along the lateral pelvic floor; a continuation of the broad ligament that provides rigid support for the cervix
steroidal hormone secreted by the theca interna and granulosa of female reproductive structures and secondary sexual characteristics; promotes the growth of endometrial tissue during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle
upper portion of the broad ligament that encloses the fallopian tubes
the posterior portion of the broad ligament that is drawn out to enclose and hold the ovary in place
a paired ligament that extends from the inferior/medial pole of the ovary to the uterine cornua
female egg; secondary oocyte released from the ovary at ovulation
a serous membrane enveloping the uterus; also called the serosa
steroidal hormone produced by the corpus luteum that helps prepare and maintain the endometrium for arrival and implantation of an embryo
rectouterine recess (pouch)
area in the pelvic cavity between the rectum and the uterus that is likely to accumulate free fluid
postition of the uterus when the uterine fundus bends posteriorly upon the cervix
position of the uterus when the entire uterus is tipped posteriorly so that the angle formed between the cervix and the vaginal canal is greater than 90 degrees
paired ligaments that originate at uterine cornua, anterior to the fallopian tubes, and course anterolaterally within the broad ligament to insert into the fascia of labia majora; hold the uterus forward in its anteverted position.
space of Retzius
located between the anterior bladder wall and the pubic symphysis; contains extraperitoneal fat
paired ligaments that extend from the infundibulum of the fallopian tube and the lateral aspect of the ovary to the lateral pelvic wall; also called the infundibulopelvic ligament
posterior portion of the cardinal ligament that extends from the cervix to the sacrum
vesiouterine recess (pouch)
area in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the uterus
anatomical structure on the surface of the ovary, consisting of a spheroid of yellowish tissue that grows within the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation; acts as a short-lived endocrine organ that secretes progesterone to maintain the decidual layer of the endometrium should conception occur
absence of menstruation
pain associated with menstruation
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the growth and maturation of graafian follicles in the ovary
hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone by the anterior pituitary gland
hormone substance that stimulates the function of the testes and the ovaries
hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates ovulation and then induces luteinization of the ruptured follicle to form the corpus luteum
refers to the onset of menstruation and the commencement of cyclic menstrual function; usually occurs between 11 and 13 years of age
periodic flow of blood and cellular debris that occurs during menstruation
abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods
abnormally light menstrual periods
time period in young girls before the onset of menstruation
The anterior cul-de-sac, or _________ pouch, is located anterior to the fundus of the uterus between the urinary bladder and the uterus.
The posterior cul-de-sac, or _________ pouch, is located posterior to the uterus between the uterus and the rectum.
The rectouterine pouch is often referred to as the pouch of ________ and is normally the most inferior and most posterior region of the peritoneal cavity.
An additional sonographically significan area is the retropubic space, which is also called the space of ________.
The retropubic space normally can be identified between the ________ bladder wall and the pubic symphysis.
The retropubic space normally contains subcutaneous fat, but a hematoma or abscess in this location may displace the urinary bladder ________.
The greatest quantitty of free fluid in the cul-de-sac normally occurs immediately following _______ when the mature follicle ruptures.
The average menstrual cycle is approximately ________days in length, beginning with the first day of the menstrual bleeding.
The menstrual cycle is regulated by the ________ and is dependent upon the cyclic release of estrogen and progesterone from the ovaries.
During the menarchal years, a9n) ________ is released once a month by one of the two ovaries in a process known as ovulation.
Ovulation normally occurs midcycle on about day ________ or a 28-day cycle.
Secretion of the ________ by the anterior pituitary gland causes the ovarian follicles to develop during the first half of the menstrual cycle.
This phase of the ovulatory cycle, known as the ________ phase, begins with the first day of menstrual bleeding and continues until ovulation on day 14.
The ________ hormone level will typically increase rapidly 24-36 hours before ovulation in a process known as the LH surge.
Cells in the lining of the ruptured ovarian follicle begin to multiply and create the corpus luteum, or yellow body, during the ________ phase.
The phase of endometrial regeneration is call the ________ phase and will last until luteinization of the graafian follicle around ovulation.
The endometrial phase after ovulation is referred to as the ________ phase and extends from approximately day 15 to the onset of menses (day 28). The secretory phase of the endometrial cycle corresponds to the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle.
The approach that requires a full urinary bladder for us as an "acoustic window" and typically necessitates the use of a 3.5- to 5-MHz transducer for adequate penetration is the ________ approach.
A ________ examination is performed with an empty bladder and allows the use of a higher-frequency transducer, typically 7.5 to 10 MHz.
The transabdominal scan offers a ________ field of view for a general screening of the pelvic anatomy.
When a transabdominal scanning technique is used, a ________ urinary bladder is essential.
labia, majora, minora
The ________ are folds of skin at the opening of the vagina; the labia ________ is the thicker external folds, and the ________ consists of thin folds of skin between the labia majora.
innominate, sacrum, coccyx
The ________ bones make up the anterior and lateral margins of the bony pelvis; the ________ and ________ form the posterior wall.
The margins of the posterolateral wall of the true pelvis are formed by the ________ and ________ muscles.
The anterolateral walls of the pelvi cavity are formed by the hip bones and the ________ muscles that rim the ischium and pubis.
Levitor ani, coccygeous
The lower margin of the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, is formed by the ________ and _______ muscles and is known as the pelvic diaphragm.
The muscles of the false pelvis include the _______ major and _______ muscles.
The area below the pelvic floor is the ________.
The muscles that arise from the lower part of the pubic symphysis and surround the lower part of the rectum, forming a sling, are the ________ muscles.
A collapsed muscular tube that extends from the external genitalia to the cervix of the uterus is the ________.
The cervix lies ________ to the urinary bladder and urethra and ________ to the rectum and anus.
The largest organ in the normal female pelvis when the urinary bladder is empty is the ________.
At the lateral borders of the uterine fundus are the ________, where the fallopian tuves enter the uterine cavity.
The cervix is constricted at its upper end by the ________ os and at its lower end by the ________ os.
The point where the uterus bends anteriorly (anteversion) or posteriorly (retroversion) with an empty bladder is the ________.
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
The uterine wall consists of three histologic layers: the ________, the ________, and the ________.
The endometrium consists primalriy of two layers: the superficial functional layer (zona ________) and the deep basal layer (zona ________).
broad, round, uterosacral, cardinal
The uterus is supported in its midline postition by paired ________ ligaments, ________ ligaments, ________, and ________ ligaments.
The average uterine position is considered to be ________ and ________.
The ________ are contained in the upper margin of the broad ligament and extend from the uterine cornua of the uterus laterally where they curve over the ovary.
infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, interstitial
The fallopian tubes are divided into four anatomic portions: the ________ (lateral segment), ________ (middle segment), ________ (medial segment), and ________ portions (segment that passes through the uterine cornua).
The ________ is often referred to as the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube because it contains fringelike extensions, called fimbriae, which move over the ovary directing the ovum into the fallopian tube after ovulation.
The ovaries are usually located ________ to the external iliac vessels and ________ to the internal iliac vessels and ureter.
The cortex of the ovary consists primarily of follicles in varying stages of development and is covered by a layer of dense connective tissue, the ________.
The central ________ is composed of connective tissue containing blood, nerves, lymphatic vessels, and some smooth muscle at the region of the hilum.
The ovaries produce the reproductive cell, the ovum, and two know hormones: ________, secreted by the follicles, and ________, secreted by the corpus luteum.
The common ________ arteries course anterior and medial to the psoas muscles, providing blood to the pelvic cavity and lower extremities.
The f________ iliac arteries extend into the pelvic cavity along the posterior wall and provide multiple branches that perfuse the pelvic structures to include the urinary bladder, uterus, vagina, and rectum.
the ________ arteries extend through the myometrium to the base of the endometrium, where straight and spiral arteries branch off the radial arteries to supply the zona basalis of the endometrium
The ________arteries will lengthn dureing regeneration of the endometrium after menses to traverse the endometrium and supply the zona functionalis
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Female Pelvis (Ch 39)
Chapter 39: Female Pelvis Diagnostic Sonography
Chapter 39 of Hagen-Ansert Sonography
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