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Terms in this set (86)
Qualitative and Quantitative research constitute
different approaches to social investigation and carry with them important epistemological and ontological considerations
philosophical study of how we acquire knowledge
a branch of philosophy dealing with the meaning of being or the meaning of life
Middle range theories
Theories that address a specific phenomenon and reflect practice. Explain a portion of human experience. E.g Decision making
a theory designed to describe and explain all aspects of a given phenomenon. Indicate to researchers how they might guide or influence researches.
represents the most common view of the nature of the relationship between theory and research. The researcher on the basis of what he knows on a domain deduces a hypothesis that must be subject to empirical scrutinity.
Proceeds from concrete observations from which general conclusions are inferred through a process of reasoning. researches infer the implications of his findings in the theory.
Difference between qualitative and quantitative
Qualitative is data that can be observed but not measured and Quantitive is information that can be counted or expressed numerically
Qualitative methods includes
interviews, focus groups, biographical methods, participatory monitoring and content analyses
Quantitative methods includes
surveys, experiments, statistical analyses of data
Characteristics of Qualitative:
a) it is inductive, generation of theory
b) Interpretativism: aim to construct or obtain in the practice
c) constructivism: emphasis on the ways that people create meaning of the world through a series of individual constructs
d) focus on words and pictures.
e) flexible procedures
Characteristics of Quantitative
a) it is deductive, testing a theory
b) natural science model, in particular positivism
c) objetivism: The belief that certain things exist independently of human knowledge or perception of them.
d) fixed procedures, narrow and precise
e) focus on number measuring
A research design is
a plan and structure of investigation so conceived as to obtain answers to research questions.
Basic type of research design
Exploratory, descriptive, explanatory and evaluative
Discovery, development of hypotheses. Investigation of a new phenomenon. Tendency to use on qualitative methods.
Description of relatively well known circumstance and measuring of the frequency of occurrence. Studies that collect detailed information about specific situations.
Test the hypotheses, explains associations and causal relationships.
Determination of effectiveness of measures.
Cross sectional study
Data are observed, measured, and collected at one point in time.
strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years
Key elements of research design
sample selection, sample size, data collection, instrumentation, procedures, justification of method use, ethical requirements
The extent to which a test yields consistent results.
whether a study can be repeated to produce similar findings or not
Accuracy, integrity of conclusions
Types of validity
measurement, internal, external and ecological
free of bias.
how well an empirical indicator and the conceptual definition of the construct that the indicator is supposed to measure "fit" together
the characteristic of an experiment that allows one to draw accurate inferences about the causal relationship between an independent and dependent variable
extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings
The extent to which a study is realistic or representative of real life. applicable to people's everyday and natural settings.
A systematic plan for doing research. It can be associated with different kinds of research designs, the technique for collecting data.
a research design that rules out alternative explanations of findings deriving from it.
Alternative criteria for evaluation of research
trustworthiness(credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability) and relevance(importance and contribution)
combination of different methods to investigate a social phenomena
4 types of triangulation
data, researcher, theory, methodological
multiple researchers are used to collect and analyze data.
concerned with the evaluation of occurrences as organizational programmes or interventions
using a variety of data sources in one study
looking at data through different theoretical perspectives
the use of multiple research methods to achieve a more complete and accurate understanding
"natural experiments" entailing manipulation of social setting.
A conceptual framework is
used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a preferred approach to an idea or thought
Research questions should be
clear, researchable, connect with established theory and research, have potential to make contribution to knowledge and should be neither too broad or too narrow.
1)Analysis: identify and clarify research question
2) Planning: research proposal, research design
3)implementation: Data collection and analysis,and reporting
Disadvantages of Qualitative research
When collect data about what your select group of participants feel or think, or how they behave. You can't necessarily use this data to make assumptions beyond this specific group of participants.
It is not a research method that conveniently allows for the collection of statistical data. However this is only a disadvantage if your research question also requires statistical data. Adopting a mixed methods approach is one way of overcoming this problem.
Subjects are deliberately selected based on predefined criteria chosen by the investigators. Select interviewees who are relevant to research questions.
Selecting sample members based on earlier interview that suggest that particular types of participants will help researchers better understand the research topic
a process where a researcher provides the people on whom he conducted a research with an account of his findings. The aim is to seek corroboration
mental representation of the layout of one's environment
Strategies of qualitative data analysis
Analytic induction, grounded theory and coding
universal explanations of pehnomena by pursuing the collection of data until no cases inconsistent with hypotheses are found. Reasoning from empirical observations towards the creation of theories
social theory that is rooted in observation of specific, concrete details. Theory that si driven from data.
grounded theory is well suited to
a) capture complexity
b) linking with practice
c) facilitate theoretical work in substantive areas that haven been not well research
d) put life into well established fields
Tools of grounded theory
a) theoretical sampling b) coding c)theoretical saturation, d) constant comparison
entails reviewing transcripts and/or field noted that seen to be potential interest of study.
Types of coding
Open, Axial, selective
applied in various degrees of detail. text is coded line by line. develop categories of information.
process of relating subcategories to a category. interconnecting information
continues the axial coding to a higher level, focus on core concepts or core variables.
Steps for coding
1) read transcript 2) generate codes 3) review codes 4) generate theorical ideas
Options to quantify a qualitive research
thematic analysis, quasi qualifications, limited qualifications
Kinds of Qualitive research methodology
ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, case study research
a research tool in which the investigator asks the participant questions
a qualitative method that involves unstructured group interviews in which the focus group leader actively encourages discussion among participants on the topics of interest
a type of qualitative approach that focuses on the story as the object of the inquiry
a research method in which observers systematically analyze media subject matter
Combining quantitative and qualitative research mixed methods
triangulation, facilitation (one approach aides the other), complementarity (different aspects are addressed with different methods
Qualitative interview types
narrative, problem-centered, expert, and focus groups
useful when there is no sampling frame. Recruitment of participants based on referrals from other participants
Case study designs:typology Stake (1995)
Intrinsic, instrumental, multiple/collective
can require extensive resources and time. it has rich theorical framework
aim is to provide basis for interpreting statistically findings on the impact of media in mass communication
Focused interview:Non direction
are unstructured questions
Focused interview: Specificity
Determine the impact of an event for interviewees. Encourage retrospective inspection.
Focused interview: range
securing that all aspects and topics relevant to the research questions are covered
Focused interview: depth and personal context
ensure emotional responses in the interview go beyond simple assessments. like : pleasant" .
problem centered interviews aim is
to focusing the interviewee's view of the problem around which the interview is centered.
elements of problem centered interview
a)qualitative method b) biogrphical method c) case analysis and d)group discussion
Problem centered interviews has 3 central criteria
problem centering, object orientation and process orientation
a discussion with someone knowledgeable about the problem or its possible solutions
A kind of qualitative interview in which the researcher is interested in the participant's story or stories about some experience or phenomenon.
semi standardize interview
the relations formulated in these questions serve the purpose of making interviewees' implicit knowledge more explicit. The interview guide mentions several topical areas, introduced by an open question and ended by confrotational question.
using document as data
selecting, classifying and analyzing documents to conduct research.
Qualitive research process
1) research questions 2) choose methodology 3) collect data 4) interpretation of data 5) conceptual and theorical work 6) prepapre your report/ findings
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